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The two are the same. God gave the law to Moses, and it was handed down to the people through Moses., therefore it is sometimes referred to as the Law of Moses. The Ten Commandments were basically a condensed version within the whole law. The whole law included the ways to sacrifice animals for sin, and how to handle social problems, how to handle food etc. However, as Romans and Galatians declare, the law was a school master to bring us to the Grace of Christ as its purpose was to show us that it was impossible to keep the entire law. Jesus said that the law could now be condensed down to love the Lord your God with all your heart, soul, mind and strength, and your neighbor as yourself.
Here are some Biblical differences to answer what you asked. "Ten" for 10 commandments and "Moses" for law of Moses. 1. One is called the law of God and the other the law of Moses. Ten - Isaiah 5:24 KJV Therefore as the fire devoureth the stubble, and the flame consumeth the chaff, so their root shall be as rottenness, and their blossom shall go up as dust: because they have cast away the law of the Lord of hosts, and despised the word of the Holy One of Israel. Moses - Luke 2:22 KJV And when the days of her purification according to the law of Moses were accomplished, they brought him to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord; 2. One is written on a book & the on stone. Ten-Exodus 31:18 KJV And he gave unto Moses, when he had made an end of communing with him upon mount Sinai, two tables of testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God. Moses -2 Chronicles 35:12 KJV And they removed the burnt offerings, that they might give according to the divisions of the families of the people, to offer unto the Lord, as it is written in the book of Moses. And so did they with the oxen. 3. One placed inside the ark and the outside the ark of the covenant. Moses-Deuteronomy 31:26 KJV Take this book of the law, and put it in the side of the ark of the covenant of the Lord your God, that it may be there for a witness against thee. Ten -Exodus 40:20 NIV He took the tablets of the covenant law and placed them in the ark, attached the poles to the ark and put the atonement cover over it. 4. Ended on the cross and the other will last forever. Moses -Romans 10:4 GNT For Christ has brought the Law to an end, so that everyone who believes is put right with God. Ten - Luke 16:17 GNT But it is easier for heaven and earth to disappear than for the smallest detail of the Law to be done away with. Psalm 119:151-152 GNT But you are near to me, Lord, and all your commands are permanent. Long ago I learned about your instructions; you made them to last forever. There are many more, but I hope these will help. Revelation 14:12 GNT This calls for endurance on the part of God's people, those who obey God's commandments and are faithful to Jesus. Ecclesiastes 12:13 NIV Now all has been heard; here is the conclusion of the matter: Fear God and keep his commandments, for this is the duty of all mankind.
The ten commandments, or "the ten words" or "the ten sayings" (עשרת הדברים transliterated Asereth ha-D'bharîm) are the basis on which the Mosaic Law (law of Moses) were based on. They contain ten divine principles that Jehovah asks all people, believer and non-believer alike, to observe because these are His divine qualities and in following them we reflect His glory. The Mosaic Law goes into more detail (600+ laws) about the day-to-day life of the Israelites... behaving neighborly, dietary concerns, health and welfare. A perfect system for an imperfect people. However, each of the laws may be traced back to one of the ten commandments as its basis for existence. As we are no longer under the Mosaic Law, these are now principles only and not commandments. Jesus stated the greatest of the two commandments prior to his completing the Law... "Love God, and love others as you would love yourself." While not an actual law, the extension of loving God and loving our neighbors as ourselves is spoken of when Jesus stated very clearly and very plainly to "love your enemies."
The Law of Moses includes the Ten Commandments among all the 612 laws given on Mount Sinai. Only the Ten Commandments were written on stone; of the remaining laws many, if not most, have been given up by Judaism over the centuries, much as the paper they were written on eventually turns to dust. The commandments written on stone survive as the quintessence of knowledge of sin for humanity, and are still in force as a minimum standard for righteousness (Matt. 19:16-22). In these scriptures we have the Judaic standard contrasted with the perfect Christian standard.
It would be better to say the "law written by Moses" as "All Scripture is God-breathed and is valuable for teaching the truth, convicting of sin, correcting faults and training in right living". The "Ten Commandments" is like the summation of everything written in the Torah (Instructions) but the details of the Torah show us how to love God and our neighbor. Yeshua said that "not so much as a yud or a stroke will pass from the Torah" so all those instructions are still good for us just as it says in 2 Timothy. We are still under this law as it relates to "right living" we are not, however, under the law of "sin and death". That is a different law that was conquered by Yeshua's sacrifice so that we don't have to fear the "second death" or come into judgement.
The giving of the Torah began with the Ten Words or Ten Commandments. The Torah was given to the nation of Israel. Yeshua did not come to change the Torah or that it was given to Israel. When it is said that we are not under the Torah, this was always true of non-Jews, and as well, it remains true that if one who is a non-Jew becomes a Jew, becomes circumcised, the are obliged to keep the whole Torah (together with the whole nation of Israel).
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