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The Mosaic Law was given specifically to the nation of Israel (Exodus 19; Leviticus 26:46; Romans 9:4). It was made up of three parts: the Ten Commandments, the ordinances, and the worship system, ...
The Mosaic Law was simply to establish the rules (the laws) of life for mankind as far a God was concerned. Without rules or law, there can be no sin. With a knowledge of sin, forgiveness is possible. Without a knowledge of sin, forgiveness is impossible. However, with forgiveness, it was possible for the Lord God Almighty to recover that which Adam and Eve lost to Satan, dominion over the earth. The Mosaic Law was a key part in that process.
The Torah, or "Mosaic Law" as you call it, is better translated as "instruction" rather than "law." In short, it serves the following roles: 1) A History of Israel 2) A Constitution for Israel 3) A Suzerainty Treaty (a treaty between a conquering king and his subjects) 4) A Ketubah (a Jewish marriage contract between G-d and His people) 5) A Pedagogue (a servant tasked with safely conducting children to their schoolmaster) 6) A Mirror revealing G-d's holiness, man's depravity, and Christ's role in G-d's salvific plan for mankind.
The Old Testament records behavior modifications with God’s covenant. In the Sinai desert God resolved to reward and punish with strict legislated fairness. Years later when the New Testament authors looked back on that history, they did not hold up the covenant as an exemplary model of God relating to his people with absolute consistency and fairness. Old covenant served as an object lesson and human beings are incapable of fulfilling a contract with God and a new Covenant with God was needed, one based on forgiveness and grace. That is why the New Testament exists. Grace is undeserved favour. Jesus obeyed perfectly and you will be blessed by believing Him. Law is holy, just and good. But it has no power to make you holy, just and good. Law was designed to expose your weakness, your sins, your inability to be holy just and good. It is just like a mirror that exposes your flaws, pimples. You cannot take out the mirror to rub your face to remove the pimples. That is not the purpose of the mirror. No amount of keeping the law, can make you holy. Only the blood of Jesus can do that. Law is holy. It is not from Devil. It is from God. Law is deserved favour. When you obey the commandments perfectly, you will be blessed. The old covenant was based on the law of Moses/ The Ten Commandments. The Old Covenant is based on `you shall not’. The New Covenant is based on` I will (Heb.8:8-12),Jer.31:31-34) In the Mosaic law there are Dos and Don’ts [Exodus 20.1-17 (7 `shall not’ and 3 `Shall’) Luke 19:1-10 talks about Story of Zacchaeus, a corrupt tax collector and a sinner. Instead of giving ten commandments, Jesus showed him Grace. Zacchaeus stood up and said, "I give half of my goods to the poor." Jesus said, "Today salvation has come to this house." See the contrasting effect of being under the law and being under the Grace. For rich young ruler Jesus answered with law. He walked away sorrowful without even paying a penny. For Zacchaeus, Jesus showed his Grace. It not only opened his heart but also opened his wallet. God’s grace has the power to transform the sinner. Grace is a teacher. It taught Zacchaeus. It is Grace that leads people to true repentance. Grace does not result in superficial behavior modification but inward heart transformation.
I only want to add one aspect of the purpose of the Mosaic Law that I feel has not been expressed in these answers yet: A great deal of the Torah centers upon the Tabernacle/Temple, priesthood, and sacrifices. How were the covenant members to deal with the inevitable presence of sin in their personal and corporate lives? The Torah gives the answer: by repentance and acceptance of God’s gracious gift of forgiveness through the payment of a just penalty exemplified in the sacrifice. It was the Torah that revealed in clear detail the method which God had provided for transgression, and it was this method—the sacrificial system and priesthood that pointed to Messiah, the ultimate sacrifice and means of eternal forgiveness. In short, the Mosaic Law did not merely point out and limit sin. It actually provided the remedy for ceremonial sin/cleansing of the flesh (which was faith in the sacrifices), and it prescribed the remedy for sins of the heart (which was faith in the Messiah).
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