ESV - 10 Because you have kept my word about patient endurance, I will keep you from the hour of trial that is coming on the whole world, to try those who dwell on the earth.
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This passage is a great example of prophetic words from Jesus that have multiple fulfilments which is the most amazing miracle in the bible. The book of Revelation was written around CE96 and by then, Christians had already faced severe persecutions under various Roman Emperors, including being killed in Roman arenas for entertainment. This prophecy to the church in Philadelphia was unique for them. An hour of trial was soon coming upon the church. Jesus encourages the local church with these words "I am coming soon. Hold on to what you have, so that no one will take your crown. The one who is victorious [keeps the faith] I will make a pillar in the temple of my God" (Revelation 3:11-12). Jesus prophecy also says "the hour of trial that is going to come on the whole world to test the inhabitants of the earth" (Revelation 3:10). Jesus is saying that all churches, everywhere, at this time will be going through trials also. These trials will include persecution but will also include false teaching infiltrating the church. Trials come upon individual Christians and local churches to test and refine our faith and to build our Christ-like character. Trials come upon the world at large as God's punishment on sin intended to turn people in repentance to a new faith and relationship in God [salvation]. We know that all the words of scripture are useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness so the people of God will become mature and complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work. So we can interpret this scripture for our generation too. Hours of trial will come upon individual Christians and local churches to test our faith, so we need to learn and grow from these experiences, while holding on to what we have, to keep the faith. The prophecy also foretells an hour of trial during the end times, as fully described later in Revelation. This hour (seven years) will bring many calamities upon the inhabitants of the earth to test them and see who will repent and turn to God for his salvation.
In my opinion, the "hour of trial" being referred to would have been the coming (at the time that Revelation was written) organized persecution of Christians carried out by the Roman Empire (which, to John's audience at that time) would have encompassed the entire known world). Christians will always face opposition and persecution from the unbelieving world, but the specific message of the glorified Christ to the church at Philadelphia was in reference to events at that time, rather than being a general statement applicable to the future or for all time.
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