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I would say that any Jewish holidays that have a biblical basis, such as being observances commanded by God in the Old Testament, are important for even Christians to at least know the basis of as part of the progressive history of salvation written about in the Old Testament; of God's involvement with His chosen people (leading to the extension of salvation to the entire world); and of the manner in which those observances prefigure or foreshadow the sinless life, atoning death, and resurrection of Jesus. In that respect, to me, the most important observances to be aware of would be Passover and the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), since they most clearly illustrate the principle that the forgiveness of sin, and deliverance from its bondage, require the shedding of blood (Leviticus 17:11; Hebrews 9:22), and also foreshadow the sacrificial death that Jesus would die to make that forgiveness and deliverance possible (even to the point of Jesus' death occurring in conjunction with the Jewish observance of Passover). However, in my opinion, that does not imply that Christians are required to continue those same observances. (Paul seems to clearly make that same point in Colossians 2:16-17, where he was writing to a congregation that would have included Gentiles who would have had no prior knowledge of those observances and no history of commemorating them.)
My take on this is the following: Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holy day, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days. Colossians 2:16 As much as the Jews had special days, the old testament was a shadow of the things to come (a reflection of the new covenant). It was incomplete and is fulfilled by the new covenant. Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill. Matthew 5:17 In conclusion: It is not sin to keep the jewish holy days as long as it is not violating the gospel, which was preached, or if it is not causing you to derive a doctrine out of it. it is very important to be led of the Holy Spirit in everything,.We were not left as orphans. He will always be there to teach us and to correct us if we continue in constant fellowship and communion with Him.
I would have to say that Yom Kippur should be known by all Christians as the most important Jewish holiday (to me, anyways). Once a year at the factory I used to work at, making wooden musical instrument cases, that one Persian Jewish coworker asked our Christian boss to have off. I always assumed he was using it for fasting and prayer. Yom Kippur is the Day of Atonement, the 10th day of the 7th month, the most solemn holy day of ancient Israel when once a year the high priest made atonement for all the sins of the people of Israel (Lev 16:11-19); the Old Testament ritual is interpreted by the author of Hebrews as a type of the atoning work of Christ (Heb 9:11-12) In this, the ordinances about the Day of Atonement (Lev 16), and about the significance of the blood (Lev 17--see esp. Lev 17:11 as was mentioned by Tim), constitute a natural and excellent conclusion.
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