ESV - 25 Lest you be wise in your own sight, I want you to understand this mystery, brothers: a partial hardening has come upon Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in.
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In Romans 11:25 Paul is answering the question from Romans 11:1, “I ask, then, has God rejected his people?” The answer is no, and his explanation is that the blindness or hardness is only temporary, “until the fulness of the Gentiles has come in.” Many Bible commentators interpret “the fulness of the Gentiles” as the fulfillment of the gospel commission, in which the gospel will be preached around the world. “The fullness of the Gentiles” has come in when the gospel has been preached everywhere and many Jews will start coming to Jesus.
The Jewish people in Jesus' time focused on the Old Testament prophecies that spoke of the Messiah as a conquering deliverer who would defeat Israel's enemies (which will occur at the time of Christ's future return). This focus blinded them to other Old Testament messianic prophecies (most notably in Psalm 22 and Isaiah 53) that spoke of the Messiah as a suffering figure who would experience rejection, and who would even be put to death. As a result, Jesus was not generally accepted as the Messiah by the Jews during the time of His earthly life and ministry, as well as after (which was also a product of misguided subsequent persecution of Jews by Christians). However, as noted by Paul in the verse from Romans cited in the question, this spiritual blindness served a larger purpose by allowing the gospel to be shared with Gentiles (beginning in Acts 10), who proved more receptive to its message. As indicated by Paul, such blindness will continue to exist until the full number (known only to God) of Gentiles (non-Jews) who will be saved has been attained, after which the Jewish people will also be saved (Romans 11:26-32).
Some Jewish people have been saved throughout history, since Paul wrote his letter to the church in Rome. But the vast majority have remained spiritually blind and hardened in heart. The rapture of the church during the Seven Year Tribulation period may be the singular event that signals that the fullness of the Gentiles has come in. Once the church is gone, God’s focus is on saving the remnant of the Jewish people. God sent many calamities into the life of the Jewish nation in the Old Testament, to get them to turn away from their sins and come back to God. In the book of Revelation we see many severe calamities and catastrophes happening, as the scroll, trumpet and bowl judgments are poured out. God’s express purpose for these judgments is to get people to repent before Jesus comes to destroy all evil and wickedness. One last chance. Most will not repent but the chosen few will receive God’s salvation.
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