There would have been many empty jugs available. Why use the water pots that were used for washing when there were empty wine jugs all around?
ESV - 6 Now there were six stone water jars there for the Jewish rites of purification, each holding twenty or thirty gallons.
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I can't speak from personal knowledge of ceremonial cleansing practices at the time, but perhaps the wine vessels that had already been fully drained through use would have been considered unsuitable for immediate re-filling and re-use without undergoing some type of ritual procedure that could not be immediately performed in order to allow them to be used for that purpose, whereas the containers that Jesus used (even if they may have been larger than standard wine containers) were "clean", since they were designed to hold water intended for ceremonial purification, and thus did not present that problem. In addition (or alternatively), perhaps the large quantity of wine produced from the water placed in the water jugs was purposely intended by Jesus to evoke associations with Old Testament references (as in passages such as Psalm 104:15 and Proverbs 3:10) to wine as a symbol of God's blessing, which in the case of Cana would have been a large amount of such blessing through the first manifestation of Jesus' power. Also, Genesis 49:8-12 (Jacob's blessing of his son Judah, from whom Jesus was descended) speaks of an abundance of grapes and wine, and Amos 9:13-15 refers to new wine dripping from the mountains when God would bring the Israelites back from their exile, which perhaps again could be construed as foreshadowings of Christ's action.
Shortly after His baptism, Christ inaugurated His ministry by performing His first miracle. Prompted by His mother, Jesus turned water into wine. The gospel teaching of Jesus is often compared to new wine (Matt 9:17; Mark 2:22; Luke 5:37, 38). Like the miracle of the loaves and fishes, its intention was more than to supply an immediate need. This was a symbol for things to come to which He hinted by saying “My hour has not yet come” (John 2:4). The water represented baptism into His death - the wine represented the shedding of His blood for our sins. The ceremonial water pots at the wedding reception represented the past with its customs and traditions which have been replaced by a new and better beverage. The water to fill the jars was brought by human hands, but the word of God alone could create life giving wine. All this pointed to the Savior’s death. By His word, Christ supplied plenty of wine for the feast - as plentiful as His grace is to wash away the World sin.
Purely from a physical standpoint, and especially since the spiritual aspect has already been covered, the recently emptied wine casks would have had a considerate amount of sediment in the bottom of them which would have spoiled the fresh wine. The sediment comes from the skins, seeds and jetsam and flotsam found on the grapes which settles to the bottom as the wine ferments. Also had the old wines casks been used rather than the water pots perhaps some of the guests may have thought that the wine casks had not been completely emptied or the parents of the bride had some additional casks hidden away that no one knew about. Lastly the touch of the Master's hand can take something that is as common and plain as water and make it something exiting. Lets face it water is about as boring a drink as there is. Clear in color with little to no taste, but wine is pretty, tastes good (some anyway!) and "wine maketh merry" (Ecc 10:19.)
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