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Jesus left us with men capable of teaching all he commanded them to others. Some teachings were passed down orally, some were written down. c.f. 2 Thessalonians 2:15 The three components to clearly knowing the truth about God are: 1. An official teaching body. 2. Teachings that were orally transmitted. 3. Teachings that were written down. Catholics believe in #1, #2 and #3. Anglicans believe in #2 and #3. Protestants only believe in #3.
All doctrine was first taught orally by the apostles and then confirmed by miracles (Mark 16:17-20; Heb.2:1-4). The purpose of miracles, therefore. Ended, for they were for confirming the Word (the faith or gospel). The apostles then put these very teachings down in writing, so that they could earnestly contend for the faith ONCE for all delivered unto the saints (Jude 3) knowing that they had ALL THINGS pertaining to life and godliness (2 Peter. 1:3). As noted above, it is the Scriptures that make a person complete and thoroughly complete unto every good work (2 Tim.3:16-17). Nothing else and certainly no other teaching, orally or otherwise, was and is needed, except the inspired Scriptures.
The responses above are a good outline of a systematic approach to the question. No question. A more experienced based approach would be found in Ministers Fraternal groups or ecumenical theological colleges where various denominations choose to train their clergy together for core subject content. When moving to a pastoral context you might find that there is a bit less clear cut distinction and some healthy discussion. Enjoy the discussion.
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