Matthew 12:31-32 As the Holy Trinity is our God in three persons, why is there a differentiation in punishment between acts against Jesus (Son of man) and the Holy Spirit in scripture?
KJV - 10 And whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but unto him that blasphemeth against the Holy Ghost it shall not be forgiven.
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Jesus came down to live as a man so he could fulfill the law and prophecies. The Holy Spirit descended upon Jesus when he went to be baptized and it was through the Holy Spirit that Jesus did all that he did while here on Earth. So to speak bad about Jesus was to speak bad about the man Jesus. If you spoke bad of the Spirit though then you were truly speaking bad of God the Father who is the one who sent the Spirit which performed all the miracles and amazing things through Jesus. This reference in the bible is talking about when the Pharisees were accusing Jesus of being Demon possessed and said that that was how he was casting out demons. Accusing the Spirit of being demonic and anything but the Holy Spirit is the unforgivable sin.
I think the Son of Man here is referring to Jesus' humanity while on earth. When the people spoke against Him while He was on earth, God is still willing to forgive them because Jesus came down to teach the people and bring them to God. He is the forgiving Savior. Despite them challenging His teaching, God is still willing to forgive them should they repent and come to God in humility. To blaspheme the Holy Spirit is a totally different attitude than just speaking against Jesus. Blaspheme used here blasphēmeō βλασφημέω: to speak reproachfully, rail at, revile, calumniate, blaspheme to be evil spoken of, reviled, railed at When one blasphemed against the Holy Spirit, one carried a totally different attitude. To reach this stage, the individual has reached a stage of no return and decided "no" against God.
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