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This is a difficult question because we do not have the benefit of any express biblical teaching that would guide us. My view is that taking Holy Communion during a fast may not amount to breaking the fast unless the nature of the fast was of an absolute nature (dry fast). But even then, considering that the size of element served by Evangelical churches contains an insignificant amount of calories such that they may not amount to breaking a fast. However, every believer should be guided by their conscience. If a dry fast was intended, then it may be advisable to avoid participating in the table for the period in which the fast would overlap with the celebration of the Table. Again there are no hard and fast rules here. If a believer feels to constrained to avoid any solids or fluids, he should be at liberty to skip the elements since his conscience would be clear on the matter. Someone may ask, what if the fast incorporated the entire congregation of believers, should the Lord's Table be celebrated on the Sunday into which the fast period extends? The wisdom of the leaders of the church community and their circumstances as well as their practices determine how best to deal with the issue. In the case of a divine or solemn fast (common in the OT days), tasting any food was prohibited. Jonathan tasted a little honey and would have been killed were it not for the intervention of the soldiers. Notice the strange discourse between Jonathan and his father Saul in 1 Samuel 14:43 "Then Saul said to Jonathan, Tell me what thou hast done. And Jonathan told him, and said, I did but taste a little honey with the end of the rod that was in mine hand, and, lo, I must die." Earlier in 1 Samuel 14:37 God could not answer Saul because his son had violated the covenant fast. This was just a little honey but the consequences were severe on Israel.
This depends on what someone is fasting from. You can fast from many things. The purpose for a fast is not to get God to do something, like Gandhi fasted to get Muslims and Hindus to stop rioting in India. Fasting means giving something up, food, specific activities, etc., in order to focus on God. The Lord's Supper, or Communion should not be considered eating a meal. The Lord's Supper is an observance and a proclamation by believers of the death of Jesus until He comes again. The bread and the cup are symbols of Jesus' body and blood- his body broken for us, and his blood poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. Paul condemned those in the church in Corinth for their actions- eating their fill and getting drunk at the Lord's Supper while others went hungry. This points to communion in the church as not being an actual meal. (1 Corinthians 11:20-34) Therefore, since it is not a meal, taking communion during a food fast should not be considered as breaking the fast.
No, because fasting even though it's great and important I believe Jesus rather have people who remember the love he showed on the cross. So, when we take communion we not only remember His death, burial, and resurrection, but also we become part of him. Once we've become part of him we realize that he's already fasted for us, so all we must really do is let him live through us because he already completed the law and overcame death! So, the way we live for him is him living through us and to keep us on track we remember his sacrifice which is much greater than fasting through communion.
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