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Foreknowledge is one of God’s traits, namely that God’s plans are irrespective of the time-continuum. God knows the end from the beginning (Is 46:9-11). While from man’s perspective time may seem to move in progression, God is not bound by time at all. This is why to man Jesus appeared in the fullness of time (Gal 4:3-5), but to God Jesus was slain from the foundation of the world (Rev 13:8, Acts 2:23). “For He was foreknown before the foundation of the world, but has appeared in these last times for the sake of you” I Peter 1:20 Foreknowledge shows God’s omniscience even over the dimension of time. He knows all before it occurs to man - because to God He sees all of time at the same time. God does not base His actions on what He sees ‘in the future’, for to Him He is not bound to travel through time. For Him, there is no mystery or surprise. While to us there is linear progression (we hear, we believe, we abide in Christ to the end, we receive eternal life) - to God there is no such progression. As we humans from our perspective 'move through' time, God works to His purpose in calling us, sanctifying us, etc (Rom 8:28-30). Predestination deals with God’s omnipotence. The word itself means to “to mark out beforehand’; to pre-establish limits and boundaries. Specifically, this word references how God set limits/boundaries/laws upon everything before creation. He set the laws of physics, placed the boundaries of the sea, determined the eternal plan by which mankind would be saved, etc (Prov 8:22-31, Eph 1:3-10, Eph 3:10-11, Job 38:33, Rom 8:29, etc). In the plan of salvation, God also predestined it to include the gentiles, not just the Jews (Eph 3:2-6, Rom 3:21-31, Rom 9:1-26, Rom 15:5-13, John 1:11-13, Isa 45:9-10, Rom 9:11-16, etc). Predestination does not mean God decided the specific movement of every person and molecule, but rather that He in His power and wisdom set the rules and limits by which space, time, and people are bound. In regards to man, God set laws regarding sin and righteousness, and the consequence of death for sin. In regards to salvation, God predestined that only Christ was the Way, the Truth, and the Life. He predestined that Christ would need to die to cover man’s sin. He predestined that all in Christ, those who believe, would be adopted as sons and made holy (Eph 1,) etc. Further details and scriptures regarding predestination and God’s sovereign rule can be found here: https://ebible.com/questions/265-what-is-predestination-is-predestination-biblical#answer-15328 https://ebible.com/questions/3181-is-god-sovereign-or-do-we-have-a-free-will#answer-14667 Elect means chosen/select, such as how God chose Israel among all the nations of the world to be His people. In like manner, God also chose all who believed in the promise of the savior; both Jew and Gentile; to be His daughters and sons. Predestination is a related concept, as God predestined the way of salvation by which we become His chosen children. Fundamental to the concept of election is that it is by God’s good pleasure that a people is chosen, not by works or the wisdom of man. Israel had nothing to recommend her, nor was Israel even a nation, when God chose her (Ezek 16:1-14, Deut 7:6) to be His treasured possession. God not only favored Israel as His people, but predestined the savior to come through Israel (Is 9:6-7, Jer 33:20-21). He chose Israel to redeem a people for Himself and to magnify His name (II Sam 7:23). Likewise, it pleased God to choose/elect His people not by anything works we have done or any favor with men, but rather to redeem us as a people through the blood of Christ alone (Eph 1:3-14). This way, it is by God’s mercy and not by man’s might or wisdom (I Cor 1:20-21, I Cor 2:5, Titus 3:4-6). By coming to God by the way He predestined for us - faith in Christ alone, we are redeemed by God as His people for the praise of His name (I Pet 1:1-10, Eph 1:3-14, Luke 12:27-33).
'How are predestination and election connected with foreknowledge?' The answer is very simple. All three are connected because they are all of God and from God. God predestined and elected because He chose to with foreknowledge of who we were in Him before the Creation. While we did not physically exist, God knew us from eternity. Was the question asked from the standpoint of someone thinking they had foreknowledge? That is impossible because only God has foreknowledge and that should be plain to everyone who acknowledges Him. We only know part of the future because Jesus told us through Revelation about the end times. Daniel chapter 7 speaks of the end times also so, John's writing and Jesus' statements in Revelation confirm Daniel's vision over 500 years earlier. Humans don't know the next millisecond since God could snap His fingers and Creation would disappear. We can plan for future things but we have no assurance what we plan will actually happen. We have no part in any of it. Ephesians 2:8-9 says we are saved by grace through faith and not by anything we do so that we can't boast. We are blessed by being predestined and elected in the foreknowledge of God and should give thanks daily (continuously) that we were chosen and saved. That is the answer to the question as I understand it. If the question was asked from a philosophical viewpoint the answer is also in the Bible since it is the objective truth and Truth, given by God to humans to enable us to understand Him, and to understand why we need Jesus as Savior. From Genesis 1:1 to Revelation 22:21 the Bible is the story of Jesus, how salvation by grace is from Him only, why we need Him in our lives daily and how to model ourselves after Him by asking Him to live His life through us, sharing His Gospel by example. God's grace, mercy, and love are the most wonderful gifts humanity has ever received. It is only through those that we and blessed with eternal life with Him. Praise Him always!
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