If Daniel 11:5 begins with pagan Rome then who are the “king of the north” and the “king of the south’?

Today's "accepted interpretation" of Daniel 11:5 -20 focuses on the post Alexander / pre-pagan Rome period (time of AE and the Ptolemy's). I believe 11:5 begins with pagan Rome - the 4th kingdom. Therefore, I would like to discuss who might be the KON, KOS, and the other parties between these verses.

Daniel 11:5 - 20

ESV - 5 Then the king of the south shall be strong, but one of his princes shall be stronger than he and shall rule, and his authority shall be a great authority. 6 After some years they shall make an alliance, and the daughter of the king of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement. But she shall not retain the strength of her arm, and he and his arm shall not endure, but she shall be given up, and her attendants, he who fathered her, and he who supported her in those times.

Clarify Share Report Asked October 07 2022 Mini Anonymous

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Mini John Appelt
The details of the passage can be confusing, but the prophecy of Daniel 11 can be understood since it is verified by history. It starts out with the Persian Empire losing out to the Greek Empire, Daniel 11:2, headed by Alexander the Great, the mighty king, Daniel 11:3. When Alexander died at the peak of his power, four generals divided the empire, Daniel 11:4, and continued Hellenization or the spread of the Greek culture, religion, language and identity. Two of these divisions eventually emerged as powerful kingdoms, the King of the North and King of the South. 

The King of the North, known as the Seleucids, named for their founder Seleucus, was over the area including Syria. The King of the South, known as the Ptolemies, named for their founder Ptolemy, was over Egypt. For some 375 years, these two kingdoms fought against each other. Whichever was stronger controlled Judea.

After a few years of struggle, the King of the South (the Ptolemies) became the dominant force, Daniel 11:5. During this time, Jews settled in Egypt, especially Alexandria, and the Hebrew scriptures were translated into Greek, called the Septuagint.

Daniel 11:6-20 continues the history of wars, marriage, conspiracy, intrigue, and betrayal between these two kingdoms. Eventually, the Seleucids (king of the North) overpowered the Ptolemies to become the controlling force over Judea. The Seleucids were responsible for heavily promoting the Greek culture with its customs and manners and colonizing as they established Greek cities. Hellenization became successful under them until the Jewish rebellion, known as the Maccabean Revolt in 167 BC. 

‘Coastlands’ in Daniel 11:18 is the first mention of Europe in this history. Rome was beginning to win battles against the King of the North, who was Antiochus III.

But Rome played a greater part in the days of the powerful King of the North, Antiochus IV Epiphanes (“the glorious one” or “illustrious one”), Daniel 11:21-35. He was met by the ships from Cyprus, Daniel 11:30, another reference to the Roman power. At this time, the Roman general, Gaius Popillius Laenas confronted him with a letter from the senate forbidding war with Egypt. With a stick from a vine, he drew a circle in the sand around him, demanding him to “decide there!” Having to take orders from Rome, the dejected Antiochus entered Judea and vented his fury on the Jews. He overthrew the Jewish priests, erected the idol of Zeus inside the temple, and sacrificed pigs on the altar, the abomination of desolation, Daniel 11:31.

Daniel 11:36-45 tells about a yet future king, much like Antiochus Epiphanes, who will blaspheme God, defile the temple with the abomination causing desolation, Matthew 24:15, and sit as God in the temple of God, II Thessalonians 2:3-4. But this takes place in the last days when the Roman power is reconstituted as a ten-nation entity.

But the fourth kingdom of Daniel 2:36-44, 7:2-8, which is the Roman Empire, becomes powerful toward the end of the Ptolemaic-Seleucid phase of the Greek Empire era.

February 14 2023 0 responses Vote Up Share Report

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