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In the Old Testament (prior to Christ's sinless life, atoning death, and resurrection), there are instances where the possibility or actual occurrence of the Holy Spirit (or the Spirit of God) departing from an individual is described. These would include Saul (1 Samuel 16:14), and also David (after his adultery with Bathsheba (Psalm 51:11)). However, the possibility of this departure was removed by Christ's sinless life, atoning death, and resurrection. Beginning on the day of Pentecost (as described in Acts 2), believers were (and still are) permanently indwelt by the Holy Spirit. This was first described by Jesus in John 14:16. Other verses speaking of the permanence of this relationship are Ephesians 1:13-14, Ephesians 4:30, and 2 Corinthians 1:22. Nevertheless, while the Holy Spirit will not leave a believer, it is possible that unconfessed sin in a believer's life can "quench" or "grieve" the Spirit, so that the individual's fellowship with God is hindered, and the Spirit's ability to work through that believer's life is compromised, in which case the benefits and joy of the Spirit's presence are adversely affected.
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