1 Corinthians 11:30: For this cause many are weak and sickly among you, and many sleep.
1 Corinthians 11:17 - 34
ESV - 17 But in the following instructions I do not commend you, because when you come together it is not for the better but for the worse. 18 For, in the first place, when you come together as a church, I hear that there are divisions among you. And I believe it in part.
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I would say that the cause of the illnesses and deaths referred to by Paul in the verse cited in the question was the fact that the members of the Corinthian congregation were not treating the elements and administration of the Eucharist with the proper spiritual insight and reverence. God was punishing them for that lack of respect. They were regarding the consecrated host and wine as ordinary food and drink, or as mere material substances, without perceiving or treating them as the body and blood of Christ Himself (as Jesus had said that they were in His institution of the sacrament, as recorded in Matthew 26:26-29, Mark 14:22-26, Luke 22:17-20, and 1 Corinthians 11:23-26).
I grew up in an assembly where every Sunday, we had a “Breaking of Bread” service. At the Breaking of Bread meeting, we had a message leading to individual thanksgiving to the Lord in prayer, for sacrificing His life for each of us. There were no prayers for requests. Then we continued to the taking of the emblems in remembrance of his sacrifice as described in 1 Corinthians 11:23-29. The stress was on 1 Corinthians 11: 27 Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. 28 But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup. The question in my heart was, “Did I live a life worthy the previous week to remember the Lord's death?” Continuing with 1 Cor. 11: 30 For this cause many are weak and sickly among you, and many sleep. Once a visitor to our assembly remarked to me that it appeared to him that the elder who was officiating at the table did not wish anyone to take the emblems in remembrance of the Lord's death. In our assembly, we were taught to keep short accounts with the Lord. 1 John 1: 7 But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin. 8 If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. 9 If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. To confess our sins to the Lord, as and when the Holy Spirit convicted us. So, now it seems to me, that the stress was not correct. Please read the last two verses of the passage: 33 Wherefore, my brethren, when ye come together to eat, tarry one for another. 34 And if any man hunger, let him eat at home; that ye come not together unto condemnation. I think that what Paul was attempting to correct was what he spoke about, at the beginning of the passage: 20 When ye come together therefore into one place, this is not to eat the Lord's supper. 21 For in eating every one taketh before other his own supper: and one is hungry, and another is drunken. 22 What? Have ye not houses to eat and to drink in? Or despise ye the church of God, and shame them that have not? What shall I say to you? Shall I praise you in this? I praise you not. So, in my opinion, the answer to the question, “What is the ‘cause’ for weakness and illness?” referred to in 1 Corinthians 11:30 is found in verses 21 and 22.
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