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I would distinguish the first three categories mentioned in the question from those of the age of accountability who have never heard the gospel. Despite not having heard it, they have God's witness in nature and in their conscience, which should lead them to seek Him, and, if they do, they will find Him (Proverbs 8:17; Matthew 7:7). If they do not, they are, as Paul said in Romans 1:20, "without excuse." Jesus told the apostles, "You did not choose Me, but I chose you," (John 15:16), and also, "No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him." (John 6:44). Even what we believe is our "decision for Christ" could not be made without the working of the Holy Spirit. I therefore leave the case of infants, young children, and the mentally-challenged to that working, and to the same mercy demonstrated by God in the incarnation of Christ.
Let's focus on the scriptural truths and promises that underlie God's plan of salvation. 1. God is Sovereign. He decided before the foundation of the world every human being who would receive his salvation (Eph 1:4-5) 2. God is Merciful. God is not willing that any should perish but that everyone would come to a knowledge of the truth (2 Pet 3:9). Therefore God gave us his general revelation in nature and our conscience (Rom 1:19-21). He also gave us his specific revelation through the gospel of Jesus Christ (John 3:16-17). 3. God is Loving. God gave human beings the free will to seek Him or not (Deut 30:19). God promises that every person who seeks him, will find him, when they seek him with all their heart (Jer 29:13). God promises to provide a pathway to salvation for every person who seeks him (Mark 4:14-20). 4. God is Just. Jesus Christ is the way, the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father and receives his salvation unless they accept Jesus as their Saviour and Lord (John 14:6). Every person who is to receive God's salvation must encounter Jesus Christ (Rom 10:9) through the gospel message (Rom 1:16). 5. God is All-Powerful and All-Knowing. He knows exactly what revelation each person needs to continue their path of seeking and He knows how to get his gospel message in front of them (Rev 1:1-8). God may send another person to share the gospel (Eph 1:13-14). God may present it to them in a dream (Act 2:17-21). Jesus may even come to a person in a waking vision like he did with the apostle Paul (Act 26:12-18). King David said: "Surely I was sinful at birth, sinful from the time my mother conceived me. Yet you desired faithfulness even in the womb; you taught me wisdom in that secret place" (Psalm 51:5-6). The Apostle Paul said of Timothy: "But as for you, continue in what you have learned and have become convinced of, because you know those from whom you learned it, and how from infancy you have known the Holy Scriptures, which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus" (2 Timothy 3:14-15). God brought every human being into existence and He alone is responsible for their eternal destiny. God provides every human with at least one, and often many, opportunities to hear the goods news of their salvation. God always communicates his revelation in the specific way that each person needs to understand.
Regarding infants, following the death of Bathsheba’s child, David said “... I shall go to him, but he shall not return to me” 2 Sam 12:23. This passage reflects David’s confidence in seeing his infant son again and the comfort he experienced this knowledge. 2 Cor 5:19 describes God’s work “...in Christ reconciling the world to himself...” and Mat 12:31 describes the only sin that will not be forgiven as “blasphemy against the Holy Ghost”. God, “the just judge of all”, knows who has consciously rejected (blasphemed) his entreaty of love and forgiveness.
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