1 Samuel 23:29
ESV - 29 And David went up from there and lived in the strongholds of Engedi.
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A stronghold would have been a natural formation of,caves that would have provided refuge and concealment for David in his effort to avoid Saul. In the case of the specific location mentioned in the passage cited in the question (En-Gedi, which means "spring of the wild kid [that is, a young goat]", and which was located on the western shore of the Dead Sea), there would also have been (as indicated by the place's name) a natural spring that could serve as a source of water. As described in 1 Samuel 24, this was the same area where David also was given an opportunity to kill Saul, but spared his life, while cutting off a piece of Saul's garment to prove to Saul that he could have killed him. The Hebrew word for a stronghold (anglicized as "metsadah") lent its name to Masada, the fortified location where 960 Jewish rebels against the Roman occupation of Israel killed themselves, rather than surrender to the Romans, in AD 74.
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