John 15:26 - 27
ESV - 26 But when the Helper comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will bear witness about me. 27 And you also will bear witness, because you have been with me from the beginning.
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No, the Holy Spirit did not dwell inside the Old Testament saints like he lived inside New Testament believers. However, the Holy Spirit did COME UPON Specific OT Saints at Specific Times for Specific purposes. In particular, God used his Holy Spirit to guide and direct the people of God, the nation of Israel. So the Holy Spirit came upon "Prophets", "Priests" and "Kings" who had specific roles to lead the people of God in fulfilling God's plan and purpose for them. Here are some examples. Elijah The HS came upon Elijah to enable him to fulfill his role as a Prophet of God, to proclaim God's messages of repentance and faith, to demonstrate God's love with healings and miracles. Elijah even outran Ahab in his horse and chariot. Elisha, the apprentice of Elijah, wanted a double portion of his Spirit and Elisha preformed more and greater miracles than Elijah. We can read about Elijah's life and ministry in 1 Kings 17 to 2 Kings 3. Aaron The Holy Spirit came upon Aaron, the brother of Moses, to enable him to fulfill the role of Priest of God, to present the sacrifices from the Israelites so their sins could be forgiven. The HS made Aaron holy so he could approach God in the Tabernacle and make these sacrifices. We can read about Aaron the priest in Exodus 28 to 30. David The Holy Spirit came upon David to enable him to fulfill his role as King over the Israelites, the people of God. The HS enabled David to conquer all the land that God had promised to the nation of Israel. The HS caused David to lead the Israelites in true worship of God and to write 70 of the Psalms to help the people draw close to God in thanksgiving and worship. We can read about David the king in the books of 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, 1 Chronicles and the Psalms. Solomon The Holy Spirit came upon Solomon to give him the Wisdom of God so he could rule over the nation of Israel with Justice and Righteousness. The HS enabled Solomon to build the temple so God's presence could reside among his people. We can read about the life of King Solomon in 2 Samuel, 1 Kings, 1 Chronicles and Proverbs. Jesus birth, life, ministry, suffering, death, resurrection, and ascension brought God's salvation to these Old Testament saints who were waiting for Jesus in their graves. Jesus victory over sin, death and all evil resulted in the HS resurrecting the souls of these OT saints from their graves and Jesus took them back to heaven with him (Matthew 27:50-54).
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