ESV - 6 Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life, and I shall dwell in the house of the Lord forever.
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The entirety of Psalm 23 likens God's care for David (and, by extension, for all of God's followers) to the care of a shepherd for his sheep. After mentioning multiple ways in which God provides for him, protects him (even in the very presence of his enemies), and shows abundant favor to him, David uses that degree of care as evidence to conclude that God will continue to show that same concern for him throughout the entire remainder of his life (which David's likens to God's goodness and love following him), and that, even after that life would be over, David would continue to be in God's presence (which David likens to being in God's house) for eternity.
David was a shepherd all his life until he was called by King Saul to play music to soothe the king's tormented soul. David was a shepherd when Samuel came and annointed him as the next king of Israel. David wrote this Psalm as a beautiful metaphor comparing his relationship with the sheep to his relationship with God. David was with his sheep 24/7 and knew every one of them intimately well. Just like God was always with David and knew him intimately well. The sheep trusted David and only followed him, just like David trusted God and only followed God's law and will for his life. That is why the bible says that David was a man after God's own heart. David knew firsthand the "goodness" of God. David saw how God looked after him and protected his life all the years that King Saul was hunting him down. David saw how God provided all the victories over his enemies and established the nation of Israel in its territory. David knew firsthand the "mercy (unfailing love) " of God. David had messed up big time with his adulterous relationship with Bathsheba and the murder of her husband, Uriah the Hittite. David had really blown it when he ordered the census of all he fighting men in Israel. But David knew how to get forgiven, he often threw himself on the mercy of God, and his relationship with God was restored. David loved to worship the Lord. He danced in the streets to celebrate what the Lord had done. David always led the people up to the house of the Lord to make music and sing praises to God. He made sure the priests taught the people the word of God and led the people in making sacrifices that were pleasing to God. David made this bold declaration of faith in the quoted verses as a natural expression of this intimate personal relationship with God. David was the recipient of many promises from God for his own life and for an everlasting kingdom through his descendants (a prophecy about Jesus becoming the King of King and Lord of Lords). David knew, because of his strong faith, that God would always be with him all the days of his life, and even after he died he would still be in God's presence forever. That kind of faith only develops when we make an intimate personal relationship with God the most important thing in our lives, when Jesus is our best friend.
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