Numbers 11:1 - 35
ESV - 1 And the people complained in the hearing of the Lord about their misfortunes, and when the Lord heard it, his anger was kindled, and the fire of the Lord burned among them and consumed some outlying parts of the camp. 2 Then the people cried out to Moses, and Moses prayed to the Lord, and the fire died down.
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God had already miraculously fed (and had continued to feed) the Israelites with manna (Exodus 16), so it would seem that their desire for meat noted in Numbers 11 arose more from a spirit of gluttony (which Moses seemed to anticipate in Numbers 11:19-20), or of a longing to eat the type of food that they had had in Egypt (ungratefully forgetting that they had been under conditions of slavery there, from which God had liberated them), and either of which could certainly have justifiably angered Him, rather than from true hunger or physical need. In addition, there is no mention of thankfulness to God on the part of the people for the quail, but only of a desire to satisfy their fleshly appetities. (Also, aside from whatever form the plague from God that is mentioned in the verse cited in the question may have taken, there could also have been severely adverse "natural" (that is, purely physical or biological) consequences of such intemperate overeating after a prolonged period of a more moderate diet.)
When the people of God fail to give thanks for God's provision in our lives we are guilty of sin. All sin makes God angry because it means we are indulging our sinful nature instead of chasing the heart of God and what pleases him. The Israelites were being ungrateful for God's simple but perfect food with the manna, the super food of angels. God had given them his best, but they wanted all the variety they were accustomed to in Egypt. They whined, complained, cried out and wailed against God; "If only we had meat to eat...we remember the fish, cucumbers, melons, leeks, onions, garlic." So God gives them the quail, not just once in awhile, but a steady diet twice a day for a month - until it comes out of their nostrils and they loathe it. Why? Because they have rejected the Lord and wanted to return to their slavery in Egypt. The rabble with them craved other food and incited the Israelites to wail about meat. So the Lord sent a plague to cause them to see their sin and repent, to give thanks to God for his generous provision. The antidote for "selfish indulgence" is "thanksgiving and generosity."
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