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From what I have read, although multiple cultures (such as Persia, Greece, India, China, and Babylon) in ancient times adopted or observed a calendar based (in their cases) on the length of time between each phase of the moon (new moon, waxing half-moon, full moon, and waning half-moon), which approximates one week in each instance, the practice of a specific seven-day week (which does not coincide exactly with the moon's phases) apparently originated with Israel, based on the creation account contained in Genesis, and not associated with any specific astronomical event.
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