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It's a challenging question indeed. My take is that the devil could be an enemy of God's work and His people with some amount of powers, but his capabilities seem to be exaggerated. Just by simply looking at the devastating effects of his influence around the globe, humanity in its mortal and fallible state has come to overemphasize the extent to which the devil gets in his dealings with them. Psalm 139 pictures God as the one with a full, comprehensive understanding of man - the anatomy, behavior, attitude and thoughts. In Mark 2.6, Mat 9.4 we encounter Jesus being able to view the minds of those around Him and being able to respond to them audibly, yet they would not have asked verbally. There is nowhere in the scripture where we get an idea that the devil knows human thoughts. Eph 6.11 and 2 Cor 10.4 however clearly hints that Satan has a measure of influence in man's thinking and decision making, though he does so due to man's of choice of allowing him a footstool in there. James 4.7 teaches saints to resist the devil; he is not omniscient as God. His power and influence are much more limited than we think. This therefore suggests that he can mainly rely on the feedback from man's thoughts which is obtained through trends and behavior. Man's behavior gives the devil a vivid picture or clue about their thinking patterns and he then relies on such to influence the mind towards his desired inclination. To a great extent, the devil depends on predictions. Having studied a person's desires, egos and plans, which are exhibited by man's deeds, the evil one can foretell about some mental pictures. Blessings.
There are many times that I do think he has discerned my thoughts--not sure how. He must know I am praying because he attempts to disrupt my prayers. Frank Peretti's "Darkness" novels paint a very uncomfortable picture of demonic harassment. But I'm not sure it is biblical. On the other hand, I find praying out loud is helpful. It is talking to God and not pondering about stuff. I actually get distracted from silent prayer more easily than speaking out loud to God. So, I think it matters not that Satan/demons hear my prayers; they know what I am praying about, anyway. Hearing my prayers may harm them, while my thinking does not? I don't know. I just pray more effectively aloud.
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