ESV - 3 And he said to them, "Take nothing for your journey, no staff, nor bag, nor bread, nor money; and do not have two tunics.
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I would say that Jesus gave this instruction to them for three reasons: 1) to increase their faith in God's provision for them, as well as their reliance on Him; 2) so that they would not be unduly burdened or weighed down in their travels, in order to be able to travel as rapidly and widely as possible in their missionary work (as well as to flee persecution quickly if it arose); and 3) in anticipation of the support of those to whom they would bring the gospel message for things such as lodging, food, and even clothing. (As Jesus indicated in the parallel passage to this in Matthew's gospel (Matthew 10:5-23), the worker is worthy of his wages (that is, deserves to be compensated for his work.))
Jesus didn't want them to take any resources with them so God the Father could demonstrate his saving power through them. It is natural as human beings, that when we accomplish something with our own resources and abilities, we want to take the credit for ourselves. But God will not share his glory with anyone. When we first seek to glorify God in obedience to his mission for our lives, then God in turn will glorify us. Jesus whole life was focused on glorifying his Father in heaven, and in the end his Father glorified Jesus by raising him from the dead and seating him at his right hand in heaven. Jesus himself left all his resources in heaven. He was completely dependant on the Word of God, prayer and the power of the Holy Spirit to accomplish his mission. So too, Jesus wanted his disciples to be completely dependant on him, to rely on his gospel message and the power of the Holy Spirit to accomplish their mission. They came back to Jesus so excited about the results of their mission as people were healed, delivered from demons, and believed in Jesus. They saw firsthand the power of God working through them. However, tin their human nature they were still prone to being arrogant and proud. Even the demons obey us, they said. So Jesus sent them in their boat across the lake to show them how inadequate their own resources were, by sending a storm so ferocious they thought they were going to drown. Then Jesus walked across the lake to show them how superior his resources were to their own and how important it was to trust (have faith) in Jesus instead of trusting in their own abilities. This is exactly the same lesson for us today. Will we serve God in our own strength and abilities or will we put our trust and dependence in the resources he gives us - His Word and His Spirit. If we depend on ourselves we will face the same kind of tribulation that the disciples faced until we learn to surrender and do the mission God's way.
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