Daniel 11:1 - 45
ESV - 1 And as for me, in the first year of Darius the Mede, I stood up to confirm and strengthen him. 2 And now I will show you the truth. Behold, three more kings shall arise in Persia, and a fourth shall be far richer than all of them. And when he has become strong through his riches, he shall stir up all against the kingdom of Greece.
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The future Antichrist is called as the King of the North. Dan. 11:36--Dan. 12:13 definitely identifies the Future Antichrist as the king of the north (Syria) at the time of the end. The whole purpose of this vision was to show "what shall befall thy people (Israel) in the latter days" (Dan. 10:14) under the last Syrian king who is foreshadowed by Antiochus Epiphanes (Dan. 11:21-34), and to narrow down the coming of Antichrist geographically, from the 4 divisions of Grecia to one--the Syrian division. The visions of Dan. 2 and Dan. 7 were given to show the formation of 10 kingdoms inside the old Roman Empire and reveal that the Antichrist would come out of one of these 10 kingdoms and lead these nations against Christ at His second coming. The purpose of Dan. 8 was to give additional information to that of Dan. 2 and Dan. 7--to narrow down the coming of Antichrist geographically, from the 10 kingdoms to the 4 divisions of the Grecian Empire which will make up 4 of the 10 kingdoms of the Revised Roman Empire before Antichrist comes. The purpose of the last vision (Dan. 10:1--Dan. 12:13) was to narrow down the coming of Antichrist geographically, from the 4 divisions of the Grecian Empire to one of these divisons, the Syrian, and complete the visions of Daniel concerning the last days and the reign of the Messiah. Dan. 11:35--Dan. 12:13 gives the third and last description of the Antichrist in Daniel. From Dan. 11:36 to the end of the book the future Antichrist and events connected with the last Syrian king before the second coming of Christ are predicted as follows; ❶ Give further information of the little horn or Antichrist (Dan. 11:36--Dan. 12:7) ❷ Identify Antichrist as the king of the north (Dan. 11:36-45) ❸ Complete the revelation of the Revised Roman and Revived Grecian empires (Dan. 2:40-43; 7:23-24) ❹ Narrow down the coming of the Antichrist geographically, from the 10 kingdoms of Dan. 2 and 7 and the 4 kingdoms of Dan. 8 to one of these kingdoms--Syria (Dan. 7:23-24; 8:9-14,20-25; 11:36-45) ❺ Explain more fully when, why, and how the Antichrist will come (Dan. 7:23-24; 8:9-14,20-25; 9:27; 11:36-45) ❻ Complete the revelation of the last day wars (Dan. 2:40-45; 7:23-24; 8:9-14,20-25; 11:40-45) ❼ Show the operation of satanic powers over the kingdoms of this world (Dan. 10:12-21; 11:1; 12:1) Hope these clarify
In Daniel, Chapter 11, the future is first indicated in verse 33, where the fall of the Jewish state is said to occur for many days - and on until the time of the end (verse 34). The remainder of the chapter describes the time of the 10-horned beast. Since Israel has been informally established as a nation, we are nearing the time of the end when the beast will be rising up to dominate the Israeli state, and others in the region, before the times of the Gentiles comes to an end with his defeat (Rev.10:6) at the battle with kings of the east. Then Israel will be truly independent of any other power or organization of states.
Although there are different interpretations of Daniel 11 most Bible scholars believe that the vision begins with King Cyrus and ends with God’s people delivered. Dan 11:2 the “fourth” king of Persia after Cyrus was Xerxes (Ahasuerus), the husband of Queen Esther. Dan 11:3-4 deals with Alexander’s conquests and the subsequent four divisions of his kingdom. Dan 11:5-15 details the rulers and activities of the divided kingdom of Greece. Ultimately two of these divisions came to dominate and the Bible calls them “The King of the North,” and “The King of the South.” The enemies of Israel, (Babylon and Egypt) always attacked from the north and the south. Thus “The King of the North” and “The King of the South” symbolizes the adversaries of God’s people. This entire vision depicts these enemies as warring powers against God’s people. Dan 11:16-20 applies to the Pagan Roman Empire; the “King of the North” that “none shall stand before.” In 63 BC the Roman General Pompey declared Judea a Roman protectorate. Dan 11: 17-19 applies to Julius Caesar, ending with his assassination. Caesar Augustus, who, at the time of Christ’s birth, decreed that “the entire world should be taxed” (Luke 2:1), is pointed out in Dan 11:20. Dan 11:21-24 is about the Pagan Rome with verse 22 being a reference to this power’s part in Christ’s death. Dan 11:25-30 refers to the civil war between Octavian Augustus as “King of the North” in conflict with Mark Antony and Cleopatra in Egypt as “King of the South” in 31 BC. Dan 11:31-35 "The abomination that makes desolate” refers here to the Church of Rome and points to the Reformation period and the persecution of “heretics” by the Catholic Papacy. Dan 11:36-39 is describing the Papal church which also parallels the descriptions of the “little horn” in Dan 7 and Dan 8. Dan 11:40-45 depicts events leading up to the destruction of the Papacy which is portrayed as “the king of the north.” The rise and fall of this same power, at the end of time, under the symbolism of Babylon the Great, is portrayed in Rev 17:7-11. Daniel tells that “the King of the North” will face an adversary symbolized by “the King of the South,” and God’s people are caught in the middle. This indicates that Catholicism will be attacked in some manner by “the King of the South” at “the time of the end.” Some believe that the “King of the South,” who opposes Catholicism is atheism and moral relativism. In verse 45 the Papacy is said to place “his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain.” In scripture “Holy Mountain” refers to both God’s true Church on Earth and to heaven itself, where Jesus carries on His high priestly ministry today (Ezekiel 28:12-15; Isaiah 65:25; Daniel 9:16; Zechariah 8:3; Joel 3:17). Thus, scholars see in these verses a picture of Satan, through the Papacy, putting itself between the “seas” (the people) and the “glorious holy mountain” (God’s true church and Christ’s sanctuary ministry in heaven).
The whole of Daniel, Chapter 11, is a message, delivered to Daniel in the third year of King Cyrus, 536 BC (MacArthur Study Bible), further explaining Daniel’s Second Vision in Dan. 8:3-14. It was at first explained to Daniel in Dan. 8:19-26 by the angel Gabriel, in the third year of King Belshazzar, 551 BC – the same year of the vision itself. Then in the first year of Darius I, king of the Chaldeans, 539 BC, it was addressed by Gabriel (Dan. 9:20-21) for a second time. This is notable because it places “the vision concerning the regular burnt offering,” and “the transgression that makes desolate” (Dan. 8:13) squarely in the middle of the Tribulation (Dan. 9:27). Daniel, Chapter 11, is unique in that it is a detailed account of sequential events from the rise of the Persian Empire – kings Cyrus the Great, Cambyses, Psuedo-Smerdis, and Darius I of the Achaemenids dynasty (Dan. 11:2) – to the destruction of the Antichrist in Dan. 11:45. As such, it is a prophetic vision and must be 100% accurate or it renders the Bible ineffective. J Vernon McGee, Dr. John MacArthur, and Pastor Chuck Smith of Calvary Chapel all agree that Dan. 11:11-12 describes Ptolemy IV as the king of the South who defeats Antiochus III the Great, at the Egyptian victory of Raphia in the year 217 BC. Dan. 11:13-16 speaks of Antiochus III, some seventeen years later, when he gains control over Palestine, the glorious land, near Caesarea Philippi in the Battle of Panium, 200 BC. Dan. 11:17 describes Antiochus III as he gives his daughter, Cleopatra, to Ptolemy V Epiphanes around 192 BC. Dan. 11:18-19 Antiochus III comes to his end in the year 187 BC after mounting a new campaign against the province of Lorestan in western Iran, then part of the Seleucidian kingdom – the kingdom of the north. At this point in the narrative, the next two verses (Dan. 11:20-21) share a critical phrase: “In his estate” (KJV). The successor, in each case, has to come from the estate of Antiochus III. That estate, or kingdom if you will, has to be the Seleucidian kingdom around the time of Antiochus III’s death, 187 BC. A map of the Seleucidian empire in 197 BC shows that it was comprised of present day Syria, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Lebanon, Jordan, and Israel. It also covered the southern half of Turkey. The obvious successor to Antiochus III was Antiochus IV Epiphanes. As it states in Dan. 11:20, he sent an exactor of tribute, Menelaus, a high priest in Jerusalem from 171 BC to 161 BC, to collect taxes from the Jews. According to Wikipedia, “Menelaus' first act was to seize the sacred vessels in the Temple stores in order to meet the obligations he had incurred. This act came to the ears of the deposed high priest Onias III, who publicly accused Menelaus of robbing the Temple.” This comports with the KJV that states, “Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom:” The KJV goes on to say, “but within a few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle.” This would be in reference to Antiochus IV Epiphanes who died suddenly of disease in 164 BC. This was while he was on expedition to appropriate funds from the temple of Aphrodite. Dan. 11:21 – the point at which the narrative turns to the future. At a time of peace, the Antichrist will seize the kingdom of the Seleucids by intrigue. Are we in the throws of seeing Iran, Iraq, and Syria melding into one kingdom? This allows the setting up of the Abomination of Desolation in Dan. 11:31 to be still future, confirming the sanctity of Scripture in which our Lord listed the Abomination of Desolation as an event associated with His return (Matthew 24:15). It also affords an opportunity to place the first four Seals from the Book of Revelation, into the verses that follow Dan. 11:21. I believe the First Seal (Rev. 6:1-2) comports with the contents of Dan. 11:22, and the Fourth Seal (Rev. 6: 7-8) with that of Dan. 11:40-44. Can you place the Second and Third Seals?
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