ESV - 9 The Samaritan woman said to him, "How is it that you, a Jew, ask for a drink from me, a woman of Samaria?" ( For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.)
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The land of Samaria traced its origin to the time that the former united kingdom of Israel split following the death of Solomon, as a judgment from God against the apostasy and idolatry that characterized the later years of Solomon's reign (1 Kings 11). After Solomon died, only the Israelite tribes of Judah and Benjamin (in the south of Israel, including Jerusalem) remained loyal to Solomon's son, Rehoboam. The remaining ten northern tribes followed Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, whom God had originally raised up as a rival to Solomon (1 Kings 11:26). However, Jeroboam also led the northern tribes of Israel into idolatry (1 Kings 12:26-33) as a means of preserving his position as king over them. One of Jeroboam's successors, Omri (the fifth king of Israel after Jeroboam)(1 Kings 16:21-28) bought a piece of land from a man named Shemer, and therefore named the fortified city that he built on the land "Samaria" in his honor. It became the capital of the northern kingdom of Israel. However, because the temple of God that Solomon had built remained in Jerusalem (which was the capital city of the southern tribes of Judah and Benjamin), and because the people of the northern kingdom of Israel were taken into exile by the Assyrians and replaced with people who were not Israelites (2 Kings 17:24), the people of the southern kingdom came to regard the people of the northern kingdom as enemies who were no longer authentic Jews. This enmity still existed in Jesus' day, even hundreds of years later, which was why (as noted in the verse cited in the question) Jews ordinarily had no dealings with Samaritans, and why referring to a Jew as a Samaritan, as those Jews who opposed Jesus did to Him (John 8:48), was regarded as a supreme insult or condemnation.
After the inhabitants of the Northern Kingdom were deported by the Assyrians, c. 721 BC, (2 Kings 17: 6), the King of Assyria (perhaps Shalmaneser, or Esarhaddon (Ezra 4:2, 16)) replaced them with Assyrians (2 Kings 17: 24). According to the following verses these people could not continue their pagan religion because the LORD sent lions to slay them. The king commanded that they take a priest from the deported Israelites to teach them how to fear the LORD, the God of the land. The Jews over the centuries began to despise the Samaritans because they imitated the Jewish religion and claimed descent from Ephraim and Manasseh, even though they were not of a true bloodline. The Samaritan religion deviated from Judaism in significant details. Also they were in effect political competitors to the Jews in front of Gentile emperors. Surprisingly, the Samaritans have survived in the Holy Land as a small group for over 2,600 years and still exist today in two small communities, Nablus and Holon.
Jews and the Samaritans Both the Jews and Samaritans are descendants of Jacob whom God re-named Israel. The Jews belong to the tribe of Judah. The Samaritans are the grandchildren of Joseph (the son of Jacob) by his sons Manasseh and Ephraim. When they settled in the land they were given the central area of the land (Israel was broken up into three regions, southern, northern and central). The Samaritans adhere to the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Bible) or the “Law’-----the oldest transcript or copy that exists. In 1 Kings 11:26-28 Solomon made Jeroboam from the tribe of Ephraim, a ruler over the house of Joseph (Samaria) because he was industrious. In V.29-31, Alijah the prophet told Jeroboam that Elohim said “Behold I will rend the kingdom out of the hand of Solomon(a Jew) and will give ten tribes to you”-(A Samaritan) -Solomon was left with the tribe of Judah.. So Samaria is very much a part of Israel and the people of Samaria are Israelites; 1 Kings 12:10 shows that Rehoboam went to Shechem (in Samaria) to be made king of Israel---thus the capital of Israel was once in Samaria. Samaritans claim to be descendants of the northern kingdom of Israel which parted ways with the southern kingdom of Judah after the death of Solomon (1 Kings 11:27- chap. 12). The Jews are holding on to the story given in 11 Kings 17: 24-41. (1 Kings 11). The northern kingdom (10 tribes) was conquered by the Assyrians and the Southern (Judah) by the Babylonians. In 11 Kings 17:24-41, the king of Assyria brought men from Babylon, into the cities of Samaria instead of the children of Israel and they possessed the land. These people did not fear God, thus God sent lions among them to destroy them. The king ordered that they get one of the priests in exile to return and teach them the custom of the god of the land. One of the priests whom they exiled came and lived in Bethel in Samaria. So Samaria had priests and Bethel is in Samaria---Bethel where Jacob saw the ladder and named the place Bethel. In John 4:9-23, the Samaritan woman by the well asked Yeshua how come He is asking her for water and the Jews have no dealings with Samaritans. She asked Him if He is greater than her father Jacob (Israel). She was claiming the same father that Yeshua (from the tribe of Judah) and the Jews were claiming. The Samaritans had no problems with the Jews; it was the Jews who had problems with the Samaritans. Jews and Samaritans were bitter rivals (John 4:9) due to the Assyrians conquest of Samaria in 721 B.C, and for having a different worship center (Mt. Gerizim, John 4:20). To portray a Samaritan as fulfilling the commandment (V.27) but Jews as circumventing it; would be an insult to the listening lawyer (V.25) and to the rest of the audience. The lawyer could not even bring himself to say “the Samaritan”. The Samaritans were the first group of people outside of Jerusalem to receive the good news (Acts 8) through Phillip. As a matter of fact they were the first group outside of Judah to receive the impartation, the baptism of the Holy Spirit, the gospel, revival, miracles signs and wonders after Pentecost.
I am not sure from your question if you are speaking of the present day or the history of Judea[Jews] and Samaria[Samaritans]. If you were asking about the present day, actually there is still somewhat of a division, for Samaria area is now known as the West Bank and under the control of the Palestinian Authority, It has been reported that approximately 50.000 Christians live in the West Bank. Jesus said in Mark 12:28-31 to love one's neighbor as one self, this is the answer to all conflict and divisions, but people continue to be divided because they listen to Satan instead.
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