For follow-up discussion and general commentary on the topic. Comments are sorted chronologically.
PROOFS THAT JEWS ARE THE ISRAEL IN BIBLE
1. Jesus was born to be King of the Jews (Mt. 2:2), as He Himself acknowledged (Mt. 27:11). These Jews are called "My people Israel" (Mt. 2:6).
2. The land of Israel (Mt. 2:20) is called the land of the Jews (Acts 10:39), and Judea (Mt. 2:20-22).
3. John the Baptist was sent to Israel (Mal. 1:1; 3:1), and he went to the Jews in Judea (Mt. 3:1,5; Jn. 1:19), not to a lost Israel in England and America.
4. Christ recognized that the Jews He ministered to were Israel (Mt. 8:10; 9:35).
5. Christ called the Jews He ministered to the lost sheep of the house of Israel (Mt. 10:5-6; 15:24).
6. The apostles were commanded to go only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel (Mt. 10:6)
7. The cities of Israel (Mt. 10:23) were cities of the Jews (Mt. 11:1, 20-24).
8. Christ promised that the twelve apostles would sit on twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel when He comes again to set up the kingdom of Israel (Mt. 19:28; Lk. 22:29-30).
9. Jesus plainly taught that the kingdom of God was in the hands of the Jews during His day (Mt. 21:33-46).
10. Matthew calls the Jews who helped crucify Christ the children of Israel (Mt. 27:9; 28:15; Jn. 18:12-39; 19:7-40).
11. John the Baptist was to turn many of the children of Israel to God (Lk. 1:16)
12. Simeon waited for the consolation of Israel (Lk. 2:25), but the Jews got the consolation (Lk. 2:26-32; Mt. 10:5; Jn. 1:11).
13. Christ was to be the glory of Thy people Israel (Lk. 2:32), but He only went to the Jews (Jn. 11:11; Rom. 1:16).
14. Christ was set for the fall and rising of many in Israel (Lk. 2:34), but this was fulfilled only with Jews (Mt. 21:42-44; 23:37-39).
15. Christ was to be made manifest to Israel (Jn. 1:31), but it was to Jews only that He was manifested (Jn. 1:11,29).
16. Christ was called King of Israel (Jn. 1:49; 12:13); and He was King of the Jews (Mt. 2:2; 27:11).
17. Nicodemus was master in Israel, but ruler of the Jews (Jn. 3:1,10).
18. Disciples wanted to know whether Christ was now going to restore the kingdom to Israel (Acts 1:7). When it does happen it will be to Judah and the house of David (Isa. 9:6-7; Zech. 14; Lk. 1:32-33; Acts 15:13-18).
19. The senate of the children of Israel is mentioned in Acts 5:21, but it was the senate of the Jews, called elders of the Jews (Lk. 7:3; Jn. 3:1).
20. Paul was chosen to bear the name of Christ before the children of Israel (Acts 9:15).
21. Jesus was sent to Israel (Acts 10:36), but He went to Jews (Jn. 1:11; 5:1--Jn. 11:54)
22. Paul called all the Jews he preached to "men of Israel" and "this people of Israel" (Acts 13:5,16,17).
23. The Jews from Asia visiting the temple in Jerusalem saw Paul with all the other Jews and cried out, "Men of Israel, help." They caught Paul and started to kill him, but he was rescued (Acts 21:27-28).
24. Paul, in appealing to the Jews at Rome (Acts 28:17-19), told them that he was bound in chains because of the hope of Israel (Acts 28:20).
25. The Judah of Isa. 1:1,9 is called Israel in Rom. 9:27-33; but these people were the Jews of the N.T. (Rom. 3:9,29; 9:24).
26. Paul speaks of Jews and Israel as being the same and sets forth their rejection by God because of sin, and the acceptance of the Gentiles (not the so-called ten lost tribes) in their place (Rom. 1:16; 2:9,10,17,28-29; 3:1,9,29; 9:24; 10:1-12; 11:1-29).
27. Blindness in part has happened to Israel until the Messiah comes to save them (Rom. 11:25-29), but it was to the Jews that Christ said their house was left desolate until they would accept Him--at His second coming (Mt. 23:27-29).
28. Paul said that Israel after the flesh were partakers of the altar of God (2Cor. 10:18).
29. Paul speaks of the new covenant yet to be made with both houses of Israel (Heb. 8:8-10).
30. Jews will be the missionaries of the gospel in the Millennium and go from Jerusalem to evangelize the world (Isa. 2:2-4; 52:7; Zech. 8:23).