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Discernment is to perceive without judging. Discernment can be used to gain biblical knowledge. In the Bible judgement is generally thought of as divine punishment. A judgement is the ability to come to a sensible conclusion. If I decide it is logical to step in front of the bus without seeing that it has stopped, I have not used good judgement. If I can see all aspects of a situation without reaching a conclusion, I have not judged, but I have discerned. I see what there is to help me come to an understanding.
Judgement is based on experience, knowledge, and wisdom. Discernment is most closely related to intuition. However, discernment is also related to wisdom, knowledge, and experience in that it is also acquired. It comes from the Holy Spirit but it also comes from using repeatedly the spirit to recognize and determine between good and bad. The more one realizes what is of God and what is not, the more that discernment just happens instead of being called upon or thought about. Just like if someone studies a subject such as Math, the more they study, the easier a Math solution just instantly is realized instead of figuring it out and thinking about it. The more you use discernment, the faster and easier it comes. Some persons have reported they can eventually even "see" the bad in persons, as in it materializes in a visible form such as a demonic image or a black sort of smoke. But whether that ever happens or not, anyone can hone discernment through Christ and the Holy Spirit. Eventually some persons, areas, and things will trigger what you recognize as your discernment that there is something strong that is not of God but against God.
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