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An individual who receives salvation by responding in faith to the prompting of the Holy Spirit to believe is then indwelt by the Holy Spirit. After that (in my opinion), the baptism of the Holy Spirit specifically refers to each believer being outfitted for service to God through gifts or talents that God provides to that person through the working of the Holy Spirit (such as those mentioned in 1 Corinthians 12:8-11) for the intended purpose of using them in the furthering of His kingdom. The degree to which each individual makes himself or herself subject to the Holy Spirit's guidance and prompting in the use of those gifts determines the degree to which that individual will be filled with the Spirit. It is possible (although regrettable) that a believer who has received gifts from the Holy Spirit may choose either not to utilize them at all, or to utilize them for purposes other than advancing God's kingdom. In such cases, the individual can grieve (Ephesians 4:30) or quench (1 Thessalonians 5:19) the Holy Spirit, which impedes that person's usefulness to God and his witness to others.
When Peter was in somewhere traveling and was sleeping on the roof of a friend and had the vision of the clean and unclean animals, after that men came and brought him to Cornelius"s house. They were gentiles. Peter preached to them and they were filled with the Holy Spirit, then were baptized.
The question shows some misunderstanding about what baptism is and how it works. This is quite understandable because this misunderstanding has existed in the church and been taught by the majority of the church from the beginning. Baptism is not a new rite added by Christianity. It was not even a new thing when John began baptizing in the wilderness. Baptism is included in the Law of Moses in various ways although there were no rites requiring full immersion and few requiring the sprinkling of the person. Mostly it was the sacrifices themselves that received any form of washing. As time went by the rabbis added many ritual washing, including ritual washings for individuals at various times, including the daily washing before meals. This was for reasons of ritual purity, not sanitation. John and Jesus began corrections of the doctrinal basis for this ritual, but they were two against the entire religious establishment and throughout the first century the apostles had to continue fighting against Jewish doctrinal influence on all of their doctrines, not just baptism. Later various influences from other religious traditions came in with the converts from those religions and by the end of the second century there was effectively no teachers of the pure doctrine left to fight against these influences. The basic law of baptism is found in the three major feasts of Israel and discussion of all three can be found in various places in the writings of Paul. The primary focus is on Pentecost because it was the type being fulfilled at the time, but he also looked back on Passover and discussed how Israel was baptized in the Red Sea (1 Cor 10:2), and looked ahead to Tabernacles although he did not make specific reference to Baptism in any of those discussions. The New Testament speaks very specifically of two separate baptisms, although I am not aware of a single denomination that does so. John's baptism is specifically said to be a baptism of repentance (Matthew 3:11, Mark 1:4, Luke 3:3, Acts 2:38, 13:24, 19:4) and it is where we die to self. This is justification by faith, It is specifically NOT the baptism of the Holy Spirit (Matt 3:11, Acts 19:3-5) although Peter does make reference to receiving the Holy Spirit at this baptism (Acts 2:38). Was Peter mistaken? No; a level of Holy Spirit and faith is received at each baptism. This is also seen in the releases of the dove from the ark in the flood story. It is seen in the story of the exodus and it is seen in other types as well. Israel had faith to come out of Egypt and because of this level of faith they were justified by their faith and received baptism in the Red Sea. However the type seen at the flood was a level of faith in which the dove (Holy Spirit) was not able to find a place to rest, so she had to return to the ark. The next feast and level of faith is Pentecost. Israel lacked this faith so when God came down to the mountain in fire they refused to hear his voice and sent Moses to hear for them. Modern Pentecostals place a strong emphasis on speaking in tongues as the proof of this feast, but ignore Jesus words which are key to this: "I only do what I see my Father do and say what I hear my Father say, (See John 5:19 and 8:38). Israel did not hear God for themselves and thus did not have the faith later to go into the Promised Land (Feast of Tabernacles). At this level the dove returned with an olive leaf in her mouth proving that she could find a place to rest, but still had to return to the ark to survive. Paul makes reference to this being receiving and earnest (downpayment) of the Holy Spirit. Since it is only a downpayment we are not actually filled with the Holy Spirit at this time.and must wait until we are clothed (Tabernacled) in the glorified body (2 Cor 5:1-9). Israel lacked this level of faith and so was not able to enter into the Promised Land when God brought them to the borders on Tabernacles. This is baptism.
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