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I believe the Bible teaches that the disciples received revelation on a "need to know basis". Yes Christ told them on more than one occasion that he would be taken, mistreated, killed and would rise from the dead but they did not understand. As they were descending the mount of transfiguration Christ told them in Mark 9:9 " And as they came down from the mountain, he charged them that they should tell no man what things they had seen, till the Son of man were risen from the dead." v.10 "And they kept that saying with themselves, questioning one with another what the rising from the dead should mean." Also in Luke 9:44 the Lord told them "Let these sayings sink down into your ears: for the Son of man shall be delivered into the hands of men." v.45 "But they understood not this saying, and it was hid from them, that they perceived it not: and they feared to ask him of that saying." In John 14 Christ was telling them about the forthcoming comforter, the Holy Spirit. Look closely at the last part of v. 17 "Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you." The Spirit dwelled "with" but not "in" the disciples. This changed after the resurrection! For in John 20:22 it states "And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost:" I believe the parallel account is in Luke 24 which gives us more information. V.44 And he said unto them, "These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me." V.45 "Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures," They did not understand fully and truly believe until our great God and savior gave them the ability to believe. It was all according to His sovereign plan and purpose. Deuteronomy 29:29 "The secret things belong unto the LORD our God: but those things which are revealed belong unto us and to our children for ever, that we may do all the words of this law."
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