ESV - 14 Behold, you have driven me today away from the ground, and from your face I shall be hidden. I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer on the earth, and whoever finds me will kill me.
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In my opinion the story of Cain is a depiction of the grace and mercy of God. We all as sinners deserved the death penalty, but God did not reward us according to what our sins deserved. I am grateful for the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ and the atonement that was made for my sins.
Although Cain himself didn't receive the death penalty, his line was totally terminated with the Deluge. Seth's line barely survived through the eight persons in the Ark.
First, Cain, being the offspring of Adam, was already under the curse of death Secondly, God had not given / revealed the "LAW" which included " a life for a life". It wouldn't be "just" for God to apply a "sentence" (of PHYSICAL death) based upon a commandment that was still "hidden", not to be revealed until a later dispensation (LAW). In order to comprehend this answer, you must understand that God's dealings with mankind, as explained in the Bible, changes over time. It is a "dispensational" (in my opinion, the only correct method) understanding of Scripture.
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