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Solomon, though wise and great, taxed the people heavily to pay for the building of the elaborate Temple and the more elaborate Palace. After his death, Rehoboam became king. Before his coronation, the nothern 10 tribes requested some reforms, to lower the taxes from the people. Older men counseled Rehoboam to accept the demands to please the people. However, his frat boys told him not to give in. They said, "Don't show any weakness, bro. Tell them, 'If my father taxed you heavily, I will tax you ten times more.'" Unlike his father, Rehoboam had no wisdom, listened to his frat boys. The northern 10 tribes were not pleased. They left Rehoboam with his Temple and his Palace and set up another Israeli kingdom in the north. Rehoboam was left with the tribe of Judah and the very small tribe of Benjamin in the south.
In 1 Kings 16 God told Solomon, "Now the Lord was angry with Solomon because his heart was turned away from the Lord, the God of Israel, who had appeared to him twice,  and had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should not go after other gods; but he did not observe what the Lord had commanded.“Because you have done this, and you have not kept My covenant and My statutes, which I have commanded you, I will surely tear the kingdom from you, and will give it to your servant.  Nevertheless I will not do it in your days for the sake of your father David, but I will tear it out of the hand of your son. God split Israel because of worshipping idols. These idols that Solomon built stayed up in Jerusalem until young King Josiah, Judah's last good King. Notice also God took the Kingdom of Israel away from Solomon's son. That's why although the capital and temple stayed with Solomon's son Rehoboam. The Kingdom of Israel was given to Jeroboam by God. Taxes and rebellion against Rehoboam were the excuse. I believe that understanding this division of Israel and Judah opens up understanding to much of the prophecies, especially the new covenant in Hebrews.
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