ESV - 1 The word of the Lord that came to Micah of Moresheth in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, which he saw concerning Samaria and Jerusalem.
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The book of Micah is one of the writing prophets’ books. According to Micah 1:1, Micah’s prophetic ministry was in the days of Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, when the northern kingdom of Israel was taken by Assyria. Micah means “who is like Yah?” or “who is like the LORD?” An interesting observation is that the meaning of the name of the writing prophet is a way to understand the book he wrote. This question is answered in that there is no one like the Lord. No one is like the Lord who prophesies retribution, Micah 1-3. This prophet had God’s message for everyone whether prophet, priest, prince, or the people. In Micah 1:10-15, Micah used puns or play on words (paronomasia) to show the march of God’s judgment on the towns and villages. Gath - “Tell” it not in “Tell,” as David lamented upon the deaths of Saul and Jonathan, I Samuel 1:20. Beth-le-aphrah - “House of Dust.” In mourning, they will roll in dust. Shaphir – “Beautiful,” The inhabitants will pass by in naked shame as prisoners. Zaanan - “Going Out.” They do not leave because of a siege. Beth-ezel - “Adjoining house.” They will mourn because the neighboring house is taken away thus losing support they need. Maroth – “Bitterness.” The inhabitants will yearn for anything good. Jerusalem – “Possession of Peace,” It will instead be disastrous for the city. Lachish – “Swift Horses.” Instead of fighting, the inhabitants will harness the steeds to chariots to flee. Moresheth-gath – “Possession of Gath.” They are to give farewell presents or dowry to Gath who will be conquered by foreigners. Achzib – “Lie.” Their houses shall fall quickly becoming a deception to Israel who was dependent on it. Mareshah – “Heir.” God will bring an heir from foreigners to its inhabitants. Adullam – “Resting place,” The glory of Israel shall come in judgment to them, instead of being a place of refuge as in David’s day, II Samuel 22:1, 23:13. No one is like the Lord who promises restoration, Micah 4-5. His future kingdom is described in Micah 4:1-4. Then Judah’s Messiah, who existed in eternity past, will come from Bethlehem, Micah 5:2, Matthew 2:6. In the power of God, He shall be shepherding His flock, Micah 5:4. No one is like the Lord who pleads for repentance, Micah 6-7. Throughout the book are the calls to “hear,” 1:2, 3:1, 3:9, 6:1, 9. Eleven times in the book, “Jacob” is used for the nation of Israel. Jacob was his earthly name before being renamed Israel, Genesis 32:8. Micah speaks to the earthly nation of Jacob. He tells what the Lord requires of His people, Micah 6:8. God is the only one to turn to, Micah 7:7. Micah used his own name to climax his writing, Micah 7:18-20. God is the incomparable, matchless God, who will pardon, pass over, and cast away all sins of those who are His people, because He is a merciful and compassionate God. All must truly confess, “Who is like the Lord?”
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