ESV - 10 So the Jews said to the man who had been healed, "It is the Sabbath, and it is not lawful for you to take up your bed.
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Halakha (Jewish law) identifies thirty-nine categories of activity prohibited on Shabbat, and clarifies many questions surrounding the application of the biblical prohibitions. Many of these activities are also prohibited on the Jewish holidays listed in the Torah, although there are significant exceptions permitting carrying and preparing food under specific circumstances. Jews disagree about how to interpret these categories and there are often strong disagreements between Orthodox Jews and Conservative Jews or other non-Orthodox Jews. The thirty-nine creative activities are: 1. Planting 2. Plowing 3. Reaping 4. Gathering 5. Threshing/Extraction 6. Winnowing 7. Sorting/Purification 8. Grinding 9. Sifting 10. Kneading/Amalgamation 11. Cooking/Baking 12. Shearing 13. Scouring/Laundering 14. Carding/Combing wool 15. Dyeing 16. Spinning 17. Warping 18. Making two loops/threading heddles 19. Weaving 20. Separating two threads 21. Tying 22. Untying 23. Sewing 24. Tearing 25. Trapping 26. Slaughtering 27. Flaying/Skinning 28. Curing/Preserving 29. Smoothing 30. Scoring 31. Measured Cutting 32. Writing 33. Erasing 34. Building 35. Demolition 36. Extinguishing a fire 37. Igniting a fire 38. Applying the finishing touch 39. Transferring between domains Carrying of mats fall under #39.
The Jews were not allowed to work on the Sabbath, and they had very strict rules about what was classified as work. It was considered work to carry his mat, and therefore the Pharisees would have seen it as wrong.
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