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David was anointed as a king to replace Saul, was given a prophetic gift, as found in the Psalms, and was given the Davidic Covenant, guaranteeing there would always be a man to sit on his throne (fulfilled in Christ). As king, David extensively modified the worship protocol in Israel. He also had power to choose the High Priest among qualified candidates, and generally determine who could worship in Jerusalem. The key of David was this power to control the religious activities of individual Israelites, besides his secular powers as a traditional king. His covenant was more authoritative than the covenant of salt given to Aaron (Num 18:19). For Christians the power to open and shut the door (the door is Christ, John 10:9) refers to the ability to open and restrain the blessings of Christianity, such as baptism of the Holy Spirit, anointings, etc. The Key of David is to be exercised by those of Philadelphia, so to speak, from heaven, for the kingdom of God in both earth and in heaven, (as are all the other rewards promised by Christ for Christians who overcome). After Christ's second coming, the Key of David will be exercised only through Jerusalem, the capitol of the Kingdom of God. Later, after the Great White Throne judgment, the Sons of God will possess the Key of David and full spiritual authority, in addition to full temporal authority as priest-kings, at the New Jerusalem. The power to "bind and loosen" (Matt 16.19) given to the apostles is quite different since it refers to the ability to change on earth the requirements in heaven needed for Christians to go to heaven. (technically speaking, of course, not in essence.)
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