Genesis 5:1 - 32
ESV - 1 This is the book of the generations of Adam. When God created man, he made him in the likeness of God. 2 Male and female he created them, and he blessed them and named them Man when they were created.
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Methuselah had the longest lifespan of any person recorded in Scripture, but he was not extremely exceptional in that regard. The early chapters of Genesis record multiple individuals (starting from Adam, who lived to be 930 years old) who survived past the age of 900. However, as time passed, life spans decreased as the deleterious effects of sin permeated the human race. By the time of Moses (as he noted in his writing of Psalm 90:10), the average human life span had decreased to a length comparable to today (70 or 80 years) -- even though Moses himself lived to be 120.
Very simply we age because we accumulate mutations in our DNA, our genes. DNA repair enzymes slow down the accumulation of mutations, but lose out in the end and we die from various diseases. Some have inborn deficiencies in their repair enzymes and age prematurely and die young, usually in their teens. When Adam and Eve were cast out of Eden they were mutation free and so early folk lived to very old ages. With time, mutations accumulated and lifespans accordingly decreased as evidenced in the OT scriptures. In short the human race will continue to deteriorate with the passage of time, but be encouraged, Christ will come before our extinction to save us into a glorious eternal future with Him. Hallelujah!
Adam and Eve were created genetically perfect. However, the consequences of the Fall had the effect of initiating replication errors in their DNA. This is likely due to the shortening of telomeres in chromosomes. Then there was the Great Flood. The environment humans lived in before the Flood was radically different. The Earth's axis was likely upright, creating a more moderate worldwide temperature. Also with much of the water being vapor in the upper atmosphere, we were protected from the deleterious effects of radiation. But that all changed with whatever caused the Flood. Thus all of creation was affected.
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