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The mix of things in the book of Hebrews has caused much debate over the purpose. There doesn't seem to be a conclusion. I think that the purpose is to declare Christ is above all! It seems that it is addressing doubts about conversion from Judaism to Christianity. It is an encouragement that Christ is better, indeed the best choice. Jesus’ sacrifice is better than any other form of religion. There are three topics in this book: The priesthood, or divine mediation (7:1-28; 10:19-22); sacrifice, or divine redemption (9:11-10:18); and covenant, or divine promises (8:8-13; 9:15-22). Three Old Testament references are used to prove the writer's point. Psalm 110:4 announces a new priesthood. Psalm 40:6-8 speaks of the final sacrifice that provides for redemption. Jeremiah 31:31-34, a new covenant of complete and final forgiveness. All of this is found by belief in Jesus’ crucifixion. There is only one way to have a true relationship with God. Chapter 6 rebukes a lack of understanding. Chapter 7 discusses Melchizedek's priesthood. Chapter 8:1-9 compares the New Covenant to the old covenant. In chapter 8:10:13, the better covenant is explained. In chapter 9:1-28, we read about the new sanctuary and the perfect sacrifice. Chapter 10:1-18 is about the New Covenant at work. Verses 19-25 are a description of faith. And verses 26-39 describe those who reject the faith. Of course, chapter 11 is the great hall of faith, my favorite chapter in this wonderful book.
The theme in those chapters of Hebrews is really the thrust of the entire book - there is only One High Priest, Jesus. He IS the fulfillment of the Leviticus law, He sits at the Right Hand of God, He is the High Priest that intercedes for us as He reigns in the “ heavenly realms”. This section also speaks of Melchizedek, which is also interesting. My cousin, Tom, who taught the book of Hebrews to his church twice to a total of about 45 people, tells me this. Hebrews is a wonderful book that too often gets slighted (other than ch. 11, which is the famous “heroes of the faith” chapter., 13:7-19 C. Prayer and Doxology, 13:20-21 D. Notes, Greetings, Benediction, 13:22-25. D.A. Carson says that the covenant theme is present in chapters 8 and 9. Here the author of Hebrews is emphasizing, 'The Superior Ministry of Jesus the Appointed High Priest, Heb 8:1-10:18)'. A. The Superior Ministry of the Heavenly High Priest, Heb 8:1-6 B. The Superiority of the New Covenant, Heb 8:7-13 C. The Superiority of the New Covenant Offering, Heb 9:1-10:18 (1) A Study in Contrasts, Heb 9:1-14 The Old Covenant Sanctuary, Heb 9:1-5 The Old Covenant Offering, Heb 9:6-7 The Old Covenant Approach, Heb 9:8-10 The New Covenant Place, Heb 9:11 The New Covenant Offering, Heb 9:12 The New Covenant Approach, Heb 9:13-14 (2) Christ the Mediator of the New Covenant, Heb 9:15-22 Warnings are issued in both of these latter 2 chapters of Hebrews: Hebrews 5:11-6:12, and Hebrews 10:26-31. And of course, the superiority versus the inferiority themes can be found in Hebrews, starting in Hebrews 7:11-28, “The Superiority of Jesus as Melchizedekian High Priest, Heb 7:11-28 (Jesus Better than Aaron).” It continues immediately with “The Superior Ministry of Jesus the Appointed High Priest, Heb 8:1-10:18: A. The Superior Ministry of the Heavenly High Priest, Heb 8:1-6 B. The Superiority of the New Covenant, Heb 8:7-13 C. The Superiority of the New Covenant Offering, Heb 9:1-10:18. Dr. Charles Ryrie puts it another way regarding Hebrews 7:1-10:18 – Christ is SUPERIOR in the Order of His Priesthood, Heb. 7:1-8:13 Christ is SUPERIOR in His Priestly Ministry, Heb 9:1-10:18 (For a more detailed outline of Hebrews, see The Ryrie Study Bible).
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