1 Chronicles 24:5 "They divided them by lot, all alike, for there were sacred officers and officers of God among both the sons of Eleazar and the sons of Ithamar."
1 Chronicles 24:1 - 31
ESV - 1 The divisions of the sons of Aaron were these. The sons of Aaron: Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. 2 But Nadab and Abihu died before their father and had no children, so Eleazar and Ithamar became the priests.
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I would say that it could have been because the outcome of the casting of lots for such a sacred purpose was not viewed as an event of pure chance, but as being directed by God. (This was also reflected by Solomon in Proverbs 16:33.)
In the OT lots were cast to discover God's will (see Lev. 16:6-8; Joshua 18:8). Because God taught Moses to use this method, He would control the outcome. QSB The use of the lot as a means of ascertaining the will of Deity is referred to at least without expressed censure, and, as the present writer thinks, with tacit approval, in many parts of the Bible. It was by lot that Aaron decided which of the two goats was to be for Yahweh and which for Azazel (Lev 16:7-10). It was by lot that the land of Canaan was divided after the conquest (Nu 26:56 ff; Josh 18; 19). For other Biblical instances see Josh 7:14 (Achan found out by lot); 1 Ch 6:54 ff; 24:5 ff. In all cases it is taken for granted that the lot cast was an expression and indication of the Divine will. --T. Witton Davies
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