ESV - 17 But he shall acknowledge the firstborn, the son of the unloved, by giving him a double portion of all that he has, for he is the firstfruits of his strength. The right of the firstborn is his.
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The intent of the passage was that the firstborn who was the son of the unloved wife was to be considered as two persons rather than one for purposes of inheritance. As a result, when the man's estate would be divided up among his sons at the time of his death, the firstborn son of the unloved wife would receive twice as much as any of the man's other sons. This was to keep personal favoritism on a man's part with respect to his wives from adversely affecting the firstborn child's rights of inheritance, regardless of who that child's mother might have been.
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