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This psalm is connected to events related in 1 Samuel 19, which were part of a long series of instances in which Saul (and, by extension, men who obeyed Saul's orders as king) tried to kill David because of Saul's jealousy of him, and because of Saul's fear that David would take the throne away from him, as had already been indicated to Saul on multiple occasions by the prophet/judge Samuel (as early as 1 Samuel 13:13-14) because of Saul's disobedience to God's commands given to him through Samuel. These attempts on David's life motivated David to detail his feelings of fear in multiple psalms, while at the same time expressing to God his need for God's protection and help, as well as his confidence that God would aid him.
The "bloody men" within the verse are Saul and his men, chasing him down to remove him as a potential heir to the throne. However, the "mighty" that are gathered against him is in reference to dark spirits (Satan). Satan, + his minions operate much like a Queen ant or Queen bee, each, but Satan overrides all below him. They can spiritually possess physical men and women depending on their accumulated sin (whether or not their behaviour has cut them off from the most high). David was aware of the spiritual influences taking over the better judgment of his father in law, Saul. That's why he didn't kill him when he had the chance. Saul was appointed by God, therefore David would not kill him. David is being hunted, spiritually. Not because of sin, but just the opposite. He was a good man. He's scared & praying to God for continued protection from the dark spirits of this world.
Of what was David afraid? Loss of life -- his own! The title of this psalm (listed in the best Bibles) connects it to David's "close shave" from Saul's men--one of several times when Saul attempted to have David executed. See 1 Samuel 19:11-13. QSB
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