ESV - 31 Behold, the days are coming, declares the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah.
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To me, as a layman (that is, a non-lawyer), the difference would be that a covenant represents an agreement between two or more parties, with each party to the covenant having designated responsibilities or required actions to carry out in order for the covenant to be binding (that is, valid and effective) on both. A testament is an expression of the wishes of only one party with respect to disposition of assets belonging to that party, or that that party controls, and that is meant to be implemented after the death of the party in question. Although the word "testament" is used in describing the two major divisions of the Bible, those sections would (in my opinion) more accurately be thought of as covenants. The Old Testament would be the covenant/agreement that existed between God and the descendants of Abraham with respect to the attainment of salvation and eternal life prior to the birth of Christ, which the Old Testament foretold. The New Testament is the agreement with respect to the attainment of those same objecives that has existed between God and all of humanity (not just the physical descendants of Abraham) since Christ's life, death, and resurrection, and that those events (that is, Christ's life, death, and resurrection) made possible.
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