ESV - 7 On the first day of the week, when we were gathered together to break bread, Paul talked with them, intending to depart on the next day, and he prolonged his speech until midnight.
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Acts 20 has been used by some to support the idea that the seventh-day Sabbath has been replaced with Sunday, the first day of the week, as early as the first century. It was also argued that Acts 20 is clear evidence that the church celebrated the Lord’s Supper on Sunday; however, I see three main problems with these assertions: 1. The day of the meeting 2. The purpose of the meeting 3. The reference to the first day of the week. 1. The meeting was “on the first day of the week.” In Acts 20:7, 8 Luke refers to lights in the room and midnight. According to the Bible, a day starts at sunset and ends at sunset, thus the meeting most likely took place during what we call Saturday evening (the first day of the week after sunset). 2. This was not a day of worship. Paul met with the believers “because he intended to leave the next day” (Acts 20:7). On his way to Jerusalem, Paul decided to spend a few days in Troas and now was ready to leave. This was a farewell meeting not a regular worship service – just a long seminar. Moreover, “to break bread” does not necessarily means the Lord’s Supper - it was a common Jewish term for having a meal (Luke 9:16; 22:19; Acts 2:42; 27:35). This meeting was a farewell meal taken at midnight before Paul left. 3. The reference to the first day is only casual, used to date the event. Luke liked to date events (Acts 20:6, 20:15, 16; 21:1, 4, 15). More important is the implication that the previous day was a Sabbath day, during which Paul would have not traveled - he waited until Sunday to depart. During the Sabbath Paul worshipped with the believers; during the evening, after sundown (the first day of the week), he met with them to instruct them and answer questions. The death and resurrection of Eutychus lengthened the meeting. Early in the morning they had a meal and Paul left. Perhaps Luke’s reason for this event was to report the miracle performed by Paul in Troas before he left on the first day of the week. He was clearly not promoting Sunday observance.
Some Christian researchers accept the early church starting to meet on Sundays not long after Christ becoming alive again, out of appreciation for the Lord's resurrection, which occurred on a Sunday, or the primary day of the week. With respect to Luke's announcement in Acts 20:7, "upon the principal day of the week," this prompted it turning into the standard day of worship for Christians in recognition of Christ's resurrection on Sunday. The primary day came to be classified "the Lord's Day" on the grounds that on it the Lord Jesus Christ emerged from the dead (Rev. 1:10).
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