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If I were to select a single overriding doctrinal point in the New Testament (from which, I would say, all other doctrine presented in the New Testament proceeds), it would be the necessity for any individual to have faith in Christ's atonement for sin through His sacrificial death and His subsequent resurrection from the dead in order for the individual to receive forgiveness of sins from God and eternal life in God's presence after life on earth has ended. To me, the most concise summary of this in the New Testament is found in Paul's epistle to the Romans (Romans 10:9), in which he wrote, "If you confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in your heart that God has raised Him from the dead, you will be saved." There is other guidance contained in the New Testament with regard to how Christians are to live or act (including guidance given by Jesus Himself), but none of those actions have any value with respect to obtaining salvation and eternal life, which are entirely the result of faith (Ephesians 2:8-9), and which were the reason for Christ's incarnation.
My thought is that there are many important doctrines, but two that stand out to me are: Eph. 2:8: "For by grace you are saved through faith, and this is not from yourselves, it is the gift of God." John 7:16: "So Jesus replied, 'My teaching is not from me, but from the One who sent Me.'"
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