What was commanded to eleven, that no one else knew? But eleven had to teach it to others?
ESV - 20 Teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age.
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I would say that, first and foremost (although Jesus did not state it in the form of a command), would be His statement that those who believe in Him will receive eternal life (John 3:16). Therefore, ahead of any specific actions or works commanded by Jesus (even the command in Matthew 28:20 to be baptized), would be the indispensable command to have faith in Him for that purpose, which the apostles in turn would have been expected to convey to others. Even that placement of faith, however, is conditioned upon repentance, or contrition over sins that a person has committed, which implies, in turn, recognition of that sin and of the need to forsake it and seek forgiveness for it. (In fact, the first commandment that Jesus was recorded as giving in the gospels (Matthew 3:2) was, "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.") With respect to other specific actions mentioned or commanded by Jesus as a means of providing a witness of the salvation that a believer would already have received through faith, I found the summary at the following site to be particularly helpful: https://iblp.org/questions/what-are-commands-christ
“Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength and with all your mind; and, love your neighbor as yourself.” All Jesus taught them were contained in these two commandments. Matt 22: 37-40
Our Lord told the eleven in the previous two verses (Matt.28:18 and 19), that all power had been given unto Him in Heaven and in Earth and to go and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, and as is already stated, to teach them to observe all" He had commanded them and that He will be with them always. (This was and is fulfilled in Acts 1:8) They had been with Him for the last three years so they alone were witness to "all" He had commanded. (Also see Deuteronomy 6:4-7, Matt 22:37-40, John 6:29, and especially John Chapter 14)
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