NKJV - 27 And as it is appointed for men to die once, but after this the judgment.
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The author (most likely Paul) of Hebrews 9:27 is simply saying that everyone must die once (eventually), then face the Judgment. The wording may sound for some as if the Judgment will follow right after death, but that would not line up with the rest of scripture - Ecclesiastes 9:5 or Daniel 12:2. The “appointed” mentioned in Hebrews 9:27 points us back to Genesis 3:19 where God pronounces the fate of man returning to dust. The next thing man will face after death, aside from the resurrection, will be the judgement (Rev 20:13). The word Hades used here refers to the grave. The Bible teaches that there are two resurrections (Rev 20:6; 20:13; 21:8). The first is for the righteous who will inherit the eternal life and not die “the second death.” The second resurrection is for the unrighteous who will die “the second death” in the hell fire (Malachi 4:1,3). This is the death penalty that Christ took upon Himself - He died for our sins so all who love Him as Lord and Saviour will not taste. Thus, it is appointed for man to die only once - however, all who rejected Christ's sacrifice will sadly have pay for their own sins and die twice (Rev 20:14, 15).
In the verse cited in the question, the writer of the epistle to the Hebrews is saying that humans undergo death (based on the universally fallen, sinful nature of humanity) at the end of their temporal lives, after which they face God's judgment to determine their eternal state (eternal life in God's presence or eternal separation from God). Those who have placed their faith in Christ's atoning death and resurrection (rather than in their own imperfect works or righteousness) for their salvation will receive eternal life. Those who have not will be eternally separated from God. This one-time judgment corresponds to the manner in which Christ suffered and died one time (rather than repeatedly) to atone for the sin of all humanity from eternity past to eternity future, after which His resurrection from the dead verified both the sufficiency in God's view of His sacrificial death, and also His attainment of the same eternal life that those who place their faith in Him for salvation will receive.
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