16Watch your life and doctrine closely. Persevere in them, because if you do, you will save both yourself and your hearers. New International Version
1 Timothy 4:16
ESV - 16 Keep a close watch on yourself and on the teaching. Persist in this, for by so doing you will save both yourself and your hearers.
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I would say that Paul was referring to the doctrine (or teaching) with regard to both the content of the Old Testament that Timothy would have received during his upbringing from his Jewish mother (Eunice) and grandmother (Lois) (2 Timothy 1:5), as well as to the instruction in the gospel message (including how that message fulfilled the Old Testament, and the message's implications with regard to the manner in whch a Christian should live, as reflected in Paul's epistles) that Timothy would have heard from Paul himself. Christians down to the present day (who now have the completed canon of Scripture for their instruction) should take similar care to remain grounded in the Bible's teachings.
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