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I would say that it was for five reasons. First, it was to help the disciples reach the degree of faith that Jesus wanted them to have in the ability of God to provide for their needs -- the type of faith that Jesus had referred to in the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 6:25-34). Second, it was consistent with His teaching that "the worker is worthy of his hire" (Luke 10:7), in anticipation of the shelter or food that others would offer to the disciples in support of their work. If the disciples took their own provisions, they would be denying others the opportunity to serve God (in the same way that the disciples were) by providing for the disciples' needs. Third, it was so the disciples would not be burdened or "weighed down" with supplies, which would increase their mobility and the number of towns and people that they could bring the gospel message to, as well as enhance their ability to escape from any opposition or persecution that might arise as a result of their evangelism. Fourth, it was to instill in the disciples the same sense of priority that Jesus had with regard to the greater relative importance of individuals' spiritual welfare, as compared with their personal material needs or desires. And, finally, it would avoid the possible hazards that might befall an individual travelling alone. If either member of the pair experienced difficulty, the disciple accompanying him could either assist him personally, or else get outside help.
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