I mean especially in the 4 gospels and in Acts.
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My understanding is that Jerusalem (meaning "foundation of peace") was first established in approximately 3000 BC. It was inhabited by the Jebusites by the time of the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. The first specific mention of the city in the Bible is in Joshua 15:8, in connection with the relationship of its location to the land allotment that was given to the tribe of Judah when Israel occupied Canaan after the exodus from Egypt. (There is an earlier reference in Genesis 14:17-20 to Melchizedek, who was described as the "King of Salem", and also the priest of God Most High, and who was a prophetic foreshadowing of Christ (as described in Hebrews 7:1-10), but Jerusalem is not specifically referred to in that passage.) David (who was from the tribe of Judah, and who was described in 1 Samuel 13:14 as a man after God's own heart) established Jerusalem as the capital of Israel during his reign, following his defeat of the Jebusites, as recounted in 2 Samuel 5:6-10. He chose Jerusalem as a means of unifying the country (since it was located within the tribal allotment of Benjamin), and also because of the military/tactical advantages of its location, which allowed control of the most convenient east-west route from Jericho through Israel to the Mediterranean coast. He then also relocated the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem, making the city Israel's religious capital as well, to which God attested by manifesting His presence during the dedication of the temple built by David's son, Solomon, as described in 2 Chronicles 5:11-14. Israel was later punished by God after it fell into disobedience and idolatry, and the people of Judah were taken into captivity in Babylon, with their captors destroying Jerusalem (including the temple), as well. (The temple was later re-built by the Herodian dynasty shortly before the time of Jesus.) Although Jerusalem was later re-occupied by the Jews, it eventually fell under the control of the Roman empire, which ruled it at the time of Jesus. However, it continued to be regarded as the center of Israel's religious life, and it retained that significance until it was once again destroyed by the Romans (as foretold by Jesus in Luke 19:41-45) in AD 70. When the modern state of Israel was established in 1948, its capital was at Tel Aviv, and Jerusalem became divided between Jews and Muslims. Israel gained full control of the city as a result of the "Six-Day War" in June, 1967, and once again established Jerusalem as Israel's capital (which some countries did not acknowledge, but which many Christians regard as having "end-times" significance). (The United States recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel in 2017.)
Jerusalem as Mr. Maas said, was captured by David, ("a man after God's own heart") [who] established Jerusalem as the capital of Israel during his reign, following his defeat of the Jebusites, as recounted in 2 Samuel 5:6-10. This capture was around 1050 B.C. See further 2 Sam. 5:6-12; 6:1-19. David managed to conquer the city by a surprise attack, led by Joab, through the water supply tunnels (Jerusalem has no natural water supply except for the Gihon Spring). Ever since its discovery in the 19th century, Warren's Shaft, part of a system that connects the spring to the city, has been cited as evidence for the plausibility of such a line of attack. This interesting bit of history is vividly displayed in the Bible films by Roma Downey. You will love it if you can get and view this from your public library as I did: The Bible (miniseries). Or even better, read the novel by her, A Story of God and All of Us: A Novel Based on the Epic TV Miniseries The Bible By: Roma Downey, Mark Burnett It is extremely dramatic! I loved it. At least see the DVD. And then in 20 B.C., Herod the Great began his world-famous project of enlarging and rebuilding the temple begun by Zerubbabel. It was built of large blocks of white stone and its façade was plated with gold so that at a distance it looked like a mountain covered with snow. It cost many millions and took 46 years to complete (John 2:20). Jesus was dedicated in Jerusalem when He was just 8 days old (Luke 2:1-38), and having grown up after He began His ministry at about age 30, He spoke to Nicodemus here (John 3:1-16, esp. John 3:16). Here He forgave an adulterous woman (John 8:1-11), preached on Satan and his children (John 8:33-59; esp. John 8:44), healed a man born blind (John 9:7). Jesus @ the end of His life made His triumphal entry here (John 12:12-15), gave His Upper Room discourse (John 13-14). Finally, in His last couple of days on earth in Jerusalem, He was arrested in Gethsemane (an urban garden at the foot of the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem, Matt. 26:47-56). This garden was where Jesus restored a severed ear (Matt. 26:51). Then He was condemned to death in Jerusalem (Mt. 27:26). He was crucified here, or actually just outside Jerusalem (Mt. 27:27-50; Hebrews 13:12). According to Matthew again (Matt. 27:57-60) He was buried here. He rose from the dead out of Joseph of Arimathea's tomb (Mt. 28:1-10). Subsequently, Jesus visited the Upper Room twice (John 20:19-23; 20:24-29). Jerusalem was the place where Peter preached his 3rd of 3 sermons (Acts 4:5-12, esp. Acts 4:12). Ananias and Sapphira were judged and died in Jerusalem (Acts 5:1-11). Paul was arrested in the Holy City, Jerusalem (Acts 21:17-23:22). Finally, the temple and city of Jerusalem were destroyed by Titus the Roman general on September 8, A.D. 70.
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