If not an "official" ten commandments, would he have known the same content?
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In Romans 2:12-15, Paul said that when the Gentiles (who would never have heard of the Ten Commandments as part of the Law given specifcially to Israel by God) did by nature the things that the Law required, they showed that the Law was written on their hearts. That was why all humanity was without excuse in God's eyes for its sin. I would thus say that Adam (even though God had only given him one specific command (Genesis 2:17)) would have been in the same position, as indicated (again as noted by Paul in that same passage) by his God-given conscience convicting him of wrong after he had eaten the forbidden fruit (Genesis 3:7). The same would apply to Cain after the murder of Abel. God had not yet given the commandment, "Thou shalt not kill (murder)," but Cain knew intuitively that he had done something that was wrong in God's eyes, as shown by him subsequently lying to God about what he had done (Genesis 4:9).
It is difficult to imagine that from Adam to Moses, people walked the Earth unaware that murder, adultery, stealing or lying was wrong. The Ten Commandants (TC) reflects God’s character and show us how to love Him (the first four Commandments) and how to love humans (the last six). Sin is transgression of the law (1 John 3:4). Paul wrote: "...for I had not known sin except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet” (Rom 7:7) - and that is the 10th Commandment (Ex 20:17). Sin then must be transgression of the TC. Paul needed the TC to teach him that coveting was wrong. Adam and Eve transgressed God’s Law when they sinned (Gen 3:6). They disobeyed God by coveting and stealing - transgression of the 10th and 8th Commandments. They also disrespected God as their parent, violating the 5th Commandment. If there was no law, they could have not sin. In Romans 5:12 Paul tells that God’s law has existed at least as long as sin has existed. If that’s the case, God’s TC existed from the beginning. Genesis 13:13 tells that Sodom was exceedingly wicked and sinful. Since sin is violating God’s law, the people of Sodom could not have been sinful if no law condemned what they were doing (Rom 4:15). For example, you cannot be guilty of driving over the speed limit on a German autobahn, because there is no speed limit. In Genesis 4:9-12, God punishes Cain for murder and lying - violations of the 6th and 9th Commandments. In Exodus 16:4 (before God gave Moses the TC) tested the people to see if they “will walk in my law or not.” If there was no 4th Commandment telling them to keep the Sabbath-Day holy, would be fair for God to test them that way? God instructed Moses to gather manna every day of the week except on the Sabbath - “a holy Sabbath to the Lord” (Ex 16:23). But they did not listen and went looking for manna on Sabbath anyway: ‘And the Lord said to Moses, “How long will you refuse to keep my commandments and my laws?’ (Ex 16:27, 28). It’s clear that Moses and the people were aware of the 4th Commandment before Mt. Sinai. In Genesis 26:5, God tells Isaac that He blessed Abraham “because Abraham obeyed My voice and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws.” This was way before the covenant at Mt. Sinai - centuries before Moses and two generations before any Jew was born. Joseph was also aware of the 7th Commandment way before Mt. Sinai (Gen 39;7-9). The Bible shows that the TC did not originate with Moses or in his time. Nor were they in any way limited only to the Jews. They were in effect and known long before Moses or Jews walked the Earth.
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