16 The Israelites are stubborn, like a stubborn heifer. How then can the Lord pasture them like lambs in a meadow? 17 Ephraim is joined to idols; leave him alone! 12 [ae]1 Ephraim feeds on the wind; he pursues the east wind all day and multiplies lies and violence. He makes a treaty with Assyria and sends olive oil to Egypt. Hosea 12:1 In Hebrew texts 12:1-14 is numbered 12:2-15.
Hosea 4:16 - 17
ESV - 16 Like a stubborn heifer, Israel is stubborn; can the Lord now feed them like a lamb in a broad pasture? 17 Ephraim is joined to idols; leave him alone.
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I would say that the book of Hosea is filled with listings of multiple actions through which Israel had angered God, and which justified His reference to Himself as "having a controversy with" (Hosea 4:1), or "having an indictment against" (Hosea 12:2), the southern kingdom of Judah, as well as the northern kingdom of Israel -- or, as it is frequently called in the book, "Ephraim" (the name of Joseph's younger son). These included such actions as: Idolatry/worshipping foreign gods (including having sex with cult prostitutes) (Hosea 4:10, 12-14) Allying with heathen nations (Hosea 7:11; Hosea 8:9-10) Not showing faithfulness (Hosea 4:1) Not showing kindness (Hosea 4:1) Having no knowledge of God (Hosea 4:1; Hosea 4:6) Swearing (Hosea 4:2) Lying (Hosea 4:2) Killing (Hosea 4:2) Stealing (Hosea 4:2) Committing adultery (Hosea 4:2) Murder (Hosea 4:2) Drunkenness (Hosea 4:18) Pride/smugness/self-satisfaction (Hosea 5:5) Having children with non-Israelites, and then raising them to worship other gods (Hosea 5:7) Making sacrifices to God while ignoring His commandments and laws (Hosea 8:11-14) Making oaths that they did not perform (Hosea 10:4) Trusting in arms and warriors (rather than God) to protect them (Hosea 10:13-15)
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