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The word "Bible" originated from Koine Greek (τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books"). It was what early Christians referred to as their "holy books". The Old Testament come from the Jewish Bible. The New Testament is 27 books compiled from various Christian literature covering the gospel, the early church (Acts), letters from apostles, and finally the apocalypse. These scripture were written between 45 to 95 AD. Who standardized (canonized) it? In 363 AD, the early churches came together in an ecumenical council (Council of Laodicea) and announced the Old Testament and 27 books (to form the New Testament) were to be read in churches. In 393 AD, the Council of Hippo affirmed this. In 397 AD, the Council of Carthage also reaffirmed the same 27 books as the standard and authoritative canon. How were the New Testament books selected? The councils used the following requirements to determine if a particular scripture was inspired by the Holy Spirit. 1) Does the book contain apostolic authority? Meaning was the author an apostle, or a direct associate (eye-witness) with an apostle? 2) Is the book continuously used and accepted by the Christian community at large? 3) Is the book consistent with orthodox teaching and doctrine? Divine Inspiration It is important to note that the early church did not "choose" the books. These books were already being used and accepted by the community at large as divinely inspired. While the standardization of the books came through flawed humans, it is God that directed this movement to ensure we recognize His inspired work. Skeptics argue otherwise and typically quote the Gospel of Thomas as an example of biased selection. However, no early church fathers ever quoted from it, it was never used by the early Christian community, and there exist only 2 manuscripts of this supposed gospel (the 2nd was found in 1945). Contrast that to thousands of manuscripts that authenticate the four gospels.
Clement (c.95 or 96), Bishop of Rome, wrote the earliest non-canonical Christian work which received almost canonical status near the end of 2nd century. Tatian , a native of Assyria, was one of Justin’s converts in Rome. He composed the first harmony of the gospels, called Diatessaron (about AD150-160). The Apostle Paul’s epistles as well, were being circulated as a collection by the end of 2nd century. There were after this, several canons of Scripture: Muratorian Canon (drawn up at Rome around 200), Origen’s New Testament (Alexandria, 250), and Eusebius’ New Testament (Around 300). The Third Council of Carthage (397) agreed upon the present canon of 27 books. I hope this helps. You can listen to Steve Gregg's lecture on this subject if you want more information:(http://www.thenarrowpath.com/mp3s/chu/chu06.mp3) Also, the YouTube video, "The Final Prophecies" posted from Bereanbeacon (1hr12min) has a great part about how God wrote and protected the Old Testament over thousands of years. It's at the beginning and lasts about 15 min. I love history and I hope that this has helped answer your question at least in part.
Who wrote the Bible? It is commonly referred to as the book of books it is the oldest book in existence, however for many people they do not even know when and how or by whom it was written. The Bible can be likened to a small library actually it is a whole library of little books bound together totaling 66 in number. As we consider the question who wrote the bible, we will also see how it stands out from all other books and has no equal. The Bible stands out from all books in existence and it is quite unique, what makes it unique is its divine authorship; it is the inspired word of Jehovah, a gift from God given for man's instruction and guidance. As mentioned above the Bible consist of 66 books in total, the first three fourths of the Bible containing 39 books from Genesis to Malachi commonly referred to as the Old Testament is properly called the Hebrew Scriptures, this being the case due to the fact that it was written in that language. The Bible is also unique because of the claim made by many of its writers. Some 40 individuals, including kings, shepherds, fishermen, civil servants, priests, at least one general, and a physician, had a hand in writing the different parts of the Bible. But time and again, the writers made the same claim: that they were writing not their own thoughts but God’s. The Hebrew Scriptures The first 39 books can be subdivided into sections, (1) Historic (seventeen books), Genesis to Esther; (2) Poetic (five books), Job to Song of Solomon; (3) Prophetic (seventeen books), Isaiah to Malachi. These, of course, are rather general divisions, for in each of the three sections portions of the other two are to be found. In the first section is comprised of 17 books the second section is referred to as the poetic five books the third section is the prophetic made up of 17 books. The first five books are credited to Moses as the writer (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy), which are sometimes called the Pentateuch, meaning “fivefold volume.” The books that follow the Pentateuch are Joshua Judges Ruth first and second Samuel first and second Kings first and second Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah and Esther 17 in all the five poetic books include Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesiastes and the Song of Solomon. The 17 books making up the prophetic section refer to the major prophets of Isaiah Jeremiah, he is a writer of lamentations as well Ezekiel and Daniel and the 12 Minor Prophets Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi. The Christian Greek Scriptures What is commonly called the New Testament makes up the last 27 books of the Bible were actually written in the Greek language therefore it is called the Christian Greek Scriptures. They also are in a logical order according to subject matter: (1) the five historical books consisting of the Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John), and the Acts of Apostles; (2) the twenty-one letters or epistles; (3) the Revelation. The twenty-one letters include fourteen by Paul (Romans, First and Second Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, First and Second Thessalonians, First and Second Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews), and seven others named after their writers (James, First and Second Peter, First, Second and Third John, and Jude). Who wrote the Bible? 40 individuals were used to write the Bible but that should not be confused with authorship, for instance a book would be credited to a certain author, yet by means of dictation the actual writing may be done by a number of secretaries. This is an effective illustration showing the authorship of the Bible is rightly credited to Jehovah God. By means of his Holy Spirit he inspired about 40 human secretaries to write information, particularly his thoughts down. For instance the Bible writer Timothy wrote “All Scripture is inspired of God,” and this includes the writings of the apostles along with the rest of the Scriptures. (2 Tim. 3:16; 2 Pet. 3:15, the Greek word used by Timothy literally meant “God breathed” a term translated “inspired of God”. Now think of the secretary dictating the thoughts of her boss, So when God’s spirit or invisible active force became operative upon the Bible writers so they could record what Jehovah dictated, it was as if God was breathing upon them to empower and bear them along in the task. Hence, it is written, “prophecy was at no time brought by man’s will, but men spoke from God as they were borne along by Holy Spirit.”—2 Pet. 1:21; To the one that created the entire universe it would've been an easy matter for Jehovah God picks men from among shepherds, farmers, fishermen, tentmakers or choose one who was a priest, king, prophet, physician or tax collector to write his dictation. Whether the writer was schooled in the courts of Pharaoh as Moses was or unlettered and ordinary like many of the apostles of Christ Jesus was unimportant to the great author. Many times these men of God repeated God's words verbatim, and at other times it was God's Holy Spirit or active Force that put his divine thoughts into their minds and then allows them to use their own choice of words. What did this accomplish as far as writer ship? This made the pages of the Bible, live with color; think of a rainbow, its various colors can be compared to the styles, songs, prayers, prose, and poetry writing traits of such diversity that the Bible writers contributed. While at the same time superbly oneness in theme and unity in purpose was maintained throughout. This is why the Bible far surpasses anything mere men could author, it can be translated into practically any tongue because of it being written in simple easy to understand language. It reflects the mind and the will of the author Jehovah. So then who wrote the Bible? Jehovah God.
All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness 2 Timothy 3:16 BUT PICK YOUR PAYMENT PLAN: pay now or later
The Catholic Church at the “Council of Rome” in 382 A.D. finalized which books would be included in the Holy Bible. This is known as "The Decree of Pope St. Damasus" and reads as follows: "It is likewise decreed: Now, indeed, we must treat of the divine Scriptures: what the universal Catholic Church accepts and what she must shun. The list of the Old Testament begins: Genesis, one book; Exodus, one book: Leviticus, one book; Numbers, one book; Deuteronomy, one book; Jesus Nave, one book; of Judges, one book; Ruth, one book; of Kings, four books; Paralipomenon, two books; One Hundred and Fifty Psalms, one book; of Solomon, three books: Proverbs, one book; Ecclesiastes, one book; Canticle of Canticles, one book; likewise, Wisdom, one book; Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), one book; Likewise, the list of the Prophets: Isaiah, one book; Jeremias, one book; along with Cinoth, that is, his Lamentations; Ezechiel, one book; Daniel, one book; Osee, one book; Amos, one book; Micheas, one book; Joel, one book; Abdias, one book; Jonas, one book; Nahum, one book; Habacuc, one book; Sophonias, one book; Aggeus, one book; Zacharias, one book; Malachias, one book. Likewise, the list of histories: Job, one book; Tobias, one book; Esdras, two books; Esther, one book; Judith, one book; of Maccabees, two books. (Note, Baruch was considered part of Jeremias in this listing; however, is listed separately in later editions). Likewise, the list of the Scriptures of the New and Eternal Testament, which the holy and Catholic Church receives: of the Gospels, one book according to Matthew, one book according to Mark, one book according to Luke, one book according to John. The Epistles of the Apostle Paul, fourteen in number: one to the Romans, two to the Corinthians, one to the Ephesians, two to the Thessalonians, one to the Galatians, one to the Philippians, one to the Colossians, two to Timothy, one to Titus one to Philemon, one to the Hebrews. Likewise, one book of the Apocalypse of John. And the Acts of the Apostles, one book. Likewise, the canonical Epistles, seven in number: of the Apostle Peter, two Epistles; of the Apostle James, one Epistle; of the Apostle John, one Epistle; of the other John, a Presbyter, two Epistles; of the Apostle Jude the Zealot, one Epistle. Thus concludes the canon of the New Testament. Likewise it is decreed: After the announcement of all of these prophetic and evangelic or as well as apostolic writings which we have listed above as Scriptures, on which, by the grace of God, the Catholic Church is founded, we have considered that it ought to be announced that although all the Catholic Churches spread abroad through the world comprise but one bridal chamber of Christ, nevertheless, the holy Roman Church has been placed at the forefront not by the conciliar decisions of other Churches, but has received the primacy by the evangelic voice of our Lord and Savior, who says: "You are Peter, and upon this rock I will build My Church, and the gates of hell will not prevail against it; and I will give to you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you shall have bound on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you shall have loosed on earth shall be loosed in heaven." St. Jerome was chosen to perform the translation who finished his work in 404 A.D. The very first Bible was published in 405 A.D. and is known as the "Latin Vulgate"; this was (and still is) the official Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It is interesting to note that the 7 books later known as the "apocrypha" (and considered “not Biblical” by protestants in KJV and other protestant Bibles) was (and has always been) part of the Canons of the Bible. These canons were taken out by Martin Luther during the Protestant reformation and not "put in" by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent as many Protestant denominations incorrectly believe. Likewise, it is interesting to note that Martin Luther (in addition to the 7 Old Testament Books) also left out (for over a century) 4 books of the New Testament. They are/were Hebrews, James, Jude and the Apocalypse (Revelation). The New Testament books were eventually put back in; however, the 7 Old Testament Books remain deleted. An examination of the “left out” books (both old and new) coincidentally are books which support/bolster the Roman Catholic Doctrines/practices of Purgatory, Intercessory Prayer, Praying for the Dead, Salvation by both Faith and Good Works, the Mass, the celibate priesthood and reconciliation.
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