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When God first created Adam and Eve, when they were still in the Garden of Eden, He charged them to be "fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth" (Genesis 1:28). When He cursed Eve in Genesis 3:16...
The prefallen, sinless world of Eden was probably different and far superior to our fallen sinfilled world. God knew, being omniscient, that our time in Eden was not long. People sometimes ask me how could Heaven contain all the billions of saints who have died over the many generations. My answer is that Heaven is a dimension we cannot even imagine being not constrained by time and space like our planet/universe. It is a bit like going into the womb and explaining to a fetus (assuming it to be as intelligent as us) what our world is like with its computers, trains, cars, homes, agriculture etc. To a fetus the world is just a watery, semi-dark place with its food coming somehow thru a tube. It would be unable to understand our world outside the womb he/she lives in. Similarly it is just as difficult for us to even partially comprehend Heaven whilst we are living in this womb called Earth. Paul in 1 Cor 2:9, 1 Cor 13: 12 and 2 Cor 12: 2-4 writes about the impossibility of describing Heaven and how we don't see or understand certain spiritual things fully on this planet.
The question is one of imagination as Michael Houdmann has alluded to. But it was never an eventuality. When I was a child, along with friends, we wondered aloud, "Who made God?" It was a question that led to the eternality of God. But as children we never got into any depth of meaning. It might be similar to asking, How far is infinity? Can you multiply it? The purpose of God's creation was never dependent on whether Adam and Eve would sin or not. As He is omniscient he knew that they would sin and He knew it an eternal time ago. This is why it is so essential to know God's attributes such as, by example, His preeminence and sovereignty and immutability. His plan was formed an eternal time ago and it was heavily weighted in adoption and atonement. God predestined (means prior to Creation) us for adoption through Jesus according to His will Ephesians 1: 5. Jesus atonement for sin is the preparation on which the court of adoption may proceed. Consider the ramifications of this question. Had they (A & E) truly had the wherewithal not to sin, then God's plan of redemption would have been nullified. I am saying that it is wrong to assume that God's plan was fluid and He just responded to the "surprise" of Adam and Eve's encounter with Satan. Additionally, Satan told A & E they would be like God with the implication being, PERFECT. They weren't; thus to believe so was to sin. Thus their status changed to sin stained persons in need of one who could restore the right relationship with God. Thus the atonement. Thus the option of adoption. So the idea of a too highly populated earth is little more than a child's imagination. It was never realistic. God's greater purpose was to reveal His agape love and grace and benevolence while maintaining justice and righteousness. I would note that this question and others can be a springboard into deeper understanding and study of God's Word and that is a good thing.
No, the world would not have been overpopulated. Overpopulated means there were too many people to sustain with the earth's available resources. This implies two things. First, overpopulation implies a state of imperfection or a state of imbalance. Without sin and the curse it would not have been possible for things to be imbalanced. Second, overpopulation implies that God is not taking care of His creation. Since that would be against His nature, that could never happen. The question is a good mental exercise but nothing I would dwell on unless it somehow leads me to love God and love others.
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