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The prefallen, sinless world of Eden was probably different and far superior to our fallen sinfilled world. God knew, being omniscient, that our time in Eden was not long. People sometimes ask me how could Heaven contain all the billions of saints who have died over the many generations. My answer is that Heaven is a dimension we cannot even imagine being not constrained by time and space like our planet/universe. It is a bit like going into the womb and explaining to a fetus (assuming it to be as intelligent as us) what our world is like with its computers, trains, cars, homes, agriculture etc. To a fetus the world is just a watery, semi-dark place with its food coming somehow thru a tube. It would be unable to understand our world outside the womb he/she lives in. Similarly it is just as difficult for us to even partially comprehend Heaven whilst we are living in this womb called Earth. Paul in 1 Cor 2:9, 1 Cor 13: 12 and 2 Cor 12: 2-4 writes about the impossibility of describing Heaven and how we don't see or understand certain spiritual things fully on this planet.
No, the world would not have been overpopulated. Overpopulated means there were too many people to sustain with the earth's available resources. This implies two things. First, overpopulation implies a state of imperfection or a state of imbalance. Without sin and the curse it would not have been possible for things to be imbalanced. Second, overpopulation implies that God is not taking care of His creation. Since that would be against His nature, that could never happen. The question is a good mental exercise but nothing I would dwell on unless it somehow leads me to love God and love others.
The question is one of imagination as Michael Houdmann has alluded to. But it was never an eventuality. When I was a child, along with friends, we wondered aloud, "Who made God?" It was a question that led to the eternality of God. But as children we never got into any depth of meaning. It might be similar to asking, How far is infinity? Can you multiply it? The purpose of God's creation was never dependent on whether Adam and Eve would sin or not. As He is omniscient he knew that they would sin and He knew it an eternal time ago. This is why it is so essential to know God's attributes such as, by example, His preeminence and sovereignty and immutability. His plan was formed an eternal time ago and it was heavily weighted in adoption and atonement. God predestined (means prior to Creation) us for adoption through Jesus according to His will Ephesians 1: 5. Jesus atonement for sin is the preparation on which the court of adoption may proceed. Consider the ramifications of this question. Had they (A & E) truly had the wherewithal not to sin, then God's plan of redemption would have been nullified. I am saying that it is wrong to assume that God's plan was fluid and He just responded to the "surprise" of Adam and Eve's encounter with Satan. Additionally, Satan told A & E they would be like God with the implication being, PERFECT. They weren't; thus to believe so was to sin. Thus their status changed to sin stained persons in need of one who could restore the right relationship with God. Thus the atonement. Thus the option of adoption. So the idea of a too highly populated earth is little more than a child's imagination. It was never realistic. God's greater purpose was to reveal His agape love and grace and benevolence while maintaining justice and righteousness. I would note that this question and others can be a springboard into deeper understanding and study of God's Word and that is a good thing.
Let us assume that that sin did not happen—no original sin happened, the human population exploded, and people filled the earth. Pay close attention to what God said: fill the earth, not overpopulate it. The command was to populate until the earth was full, and then reproduction would cease. Genesis 1:28 "And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish [“fill”—KJV] the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth." Similar statements govern sea creatures (Genesis 1:22). After the flood, Genesis 9:1 and Genesis 9:8 reaffirm that man was to reproduce and multiply and fill the earth as well. Bodie Hodge offers this example: “Consider if someone asked me to fill up a glass of water for them. Would I fill it and then keep putting water in it so that let it overflowed? No, I would fill it only until it was full. The word fill basically places limits on humans right from the start.” There is no reason to assume God wouldn’t have said “stop reproducing” once humans had filled the earth. Remember in a world without sin, God’s relationship with mankind wouldn’t be tarnished; hence, open communication should still be there.” God can and does change some civil rules from time to time. For example, originally we could only be vegetarian (Genesis 1:29), but after the Flood, God gave man permission to eat meat (Genesis 9:3).” Most of my research comes from the marvelous source that our Sunday School classes for all ages at our church, East Delavan Baptist Church is using, and that source is “Answers in Genesis.” Even if God did not command man to stop filling the earth, to prevent overpopulation, He could have made the earth bigger. He could have allowed and enabled some of the population to live on what are now uninhabitable planets BUT THEN God can make them inhabitable anytime He wants! God is able! He’s all-powerful!
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