How did they communicate with them?
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Koine Greek ("Common" Greek) was the "lingua franca" or unifying language of its time, much like English is recognized today. The areas that the apostle Paul travelled were regions that were hellenized by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. His empire stretched from the Mediterranean to the Middle East. Koine Greek was spoken for many centuries after. Paul only had to speak Greek to reach out to the gentiles. Not only that, the New Testament was written by the apostles in Koine Greek. This is one of many amazing things that led to the growth of Christianity. The areas that Alexander the Great captured mostly came from the Persian empire, which captured the Babylonian empire, which destroyed Israel. And so the destruction and consolidation of territories and kingdoms (including Israel's) led to a unifying culture and language that then enable God's gift of salvation beyond the Jews, to the gentile nations of the whole world! This to me is yet another classic example of God's wisdom and how His plans are above our plans. The enemy thought he won by destroying Israel, only to realize later it would pave the road for salvation to the entire world. Just as the enemy thought he won when he had Jesus crucified, only to realize again, that Jesus death brought victory over death!
This is only one part of God's incomprehensible, full-of-amazement, and mysterious masterpieces when the Holy Spirit descended upon the apostles as is read in Acts 2:5-12 (At that time there were devout Jews from every nation living in Jerusalem. When they heard the loud noise, everyone came running, and they were bewildered to hear their own languages being spoken by the believers.They were completely amazed. “How can this be?” they exclaimed. “These people are all from Galilee, and yet we hear them speaking in our own native languages! Here we are - Parthians, Medes, Elamites, people from Mesopotamia, Judea, Cappadocia, Pontus, the province of Asia, Phrygia, Pamphylia, Egypt, and the areas of Libya around Cyrene, visitors from Rome (both Jews and converts to Judaism), Cretans, and Arabs. And we all hear these people speaking in our own languages about the wonderful things God has done!” They stood there amazed and perplexed. “What can this mean?” they asked each other.). If this miracle itself was so great an awe to the audience there, who were at that time mostly 'stunned' by the ability of the believers that was inspired by the Holy Spirit, imagine what else can the Holy Spirit do to empower the believers and even us who believe in Him! The disciples were under the influence of the Holy Spirit when they preached and yes, based on historical evidence as well, their language of speech were Koine Greek when they communicate with people outside the Roman World/Empire and within its territories.
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